Next Article in Journal
Cyberbullying across the Lifespan of Education: Issues and Interventions from School to University
Next Article in Special Issue
Impacts of Road Traffic Network and Socioeconomic Factors on the Diffusion of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Mainland China
Previous Article in Journal
Longitudinal Change of PTSD Symptoms in Community Members after the World Trade Center Destruction
Previous Article in Special Issue
Determining the Enablers and Barriers for the Adoption of Clean Cookstoves in the Middle Belt of Ghana—A Qualitative Study
Open AccessReview

Social Inequalities in Environmental Resources of Green and Blue Spaces: A Review of Evidence in the WHO European Region

1
Institute of Public Health and Nursing Research, Department of Social Epidemiology, University of Bremen 28359 Bremen, Germany
2
Health Sciences Bremen, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071216
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Achieving Environmental Health Equity: Great Expectations)
Residential green and blue spaces and their potential health benefits have received increasing attention in the context of environmental health inequalities, because an unequal social distribution of these resources may contribute to inequalities in health outcomes. This systematic review synthesised evidence of environmental inequalities, focusing on availability and accessibility measures of green and blue spaces. Studies in the World Health Organisation (WHO) European Region published between 2010 and 2017 were considered for the review. In total, 14 studies were identified, where most of them (n = 12) analysed inequalities of green spaces. The majority had an ecological study design that mostly applied deprivation indices on the small area level, whereas cross-sectional studies on the individual level mostly applied single social measures. Ecological studies consistently showed that deprived areas had lower green space availability than more affluent areas, whereas mixed associations were found for single social dimensions in cross-sectional studies on the individual level. In order to gain more insights into how various social dimensions are linked to the distribution of environmental resources within the WHO European Region, more studies are needed that apply comparable methods and study designs for analysing social inequalities in environmental resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental inequalities; environmental justice; systematic review; green space; blue space; Europe environmental inequalities; environmental justice; systematic review; green space; blue space; Europe
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Schüle, S.A.; Hilz, L.K.; Dreger, S.; Bolte, G. Social Inequalities in Environmental Resources of Green and Blue Spaces: A Review of Evidence in the WHO European Region. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1216.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop