The aim of the study was an analysis of mortality trends due to malignant neoplasms in Poland. The study material was a database, consisting of 1,367,364 death certificates of inhabitants of Poland who died during the period 2000–2014 due to malignant cancer. To calculate years of life lost, the SEYLLp
index (Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person) was applied. We also calculated AAPC (Average Annual Percentage Change). The SEYLLp
index (per 10,000 population) due to malignant neoplasms in Poland in males decreased from 586.3 in 2000 to 575.5 in 2014, whereas in females it increased from 398.6 in 2000 to 418.3 in 2014. The greatest number of lost years of life in 2014 was attributed to lung cancer (174.7 per 10,000 males and 77.3 per 10,000 females), breast cancer in females (64.5) and colorectal cancer in males (39.0). The most negative trends were observed for lung cancer in females (AAPC = 3.5%) and for colorectal cancer (AAPC = 1.8%) and prostate cancer (AAPC = 1.6%) in males. Many lost years could have been prevented by including a greater number of Polish inhabitants in screening examinations, mostly targeted at malignant neoplasm, whose incidence is closely connected with modifiable risk factors.
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