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Open AccessArticle

Distributional Environmental Injustices for a Minority Group without Minority Status: Arab Americans and Residential Exposure to Carcinogenic Air Pollution in the US

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Department of Sociology/Environmental and Sustainability Studies, University of Utah, 480 S 1530 E, Room 0310, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
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Department of Geography/Environmental and Sustainability Studies, University of Utah, 332 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244899
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
Distributional environmental injustices in residential exposure to air pollution in Arab American enclaves have not been examined. We conducted our investigation at the census tract-level across the continental United States using a set of socio-demographic variables to predict cancer risk from hazardous air pollutant (HAP) exposure. Arab enclaves had a mean cancer risk score of 44.08, as compared to 40.02 in non-enclave tracts. In terms of the specific origin groups, Moroccan enclaves had the highest cancer risk score (46.93), followed by Egyptian (45.33), Iraqi (43.13), Jordanian (41.67), and Lebanese (40.65). In generalized estimating equations controlling for geographic clustering and other covariates, Arab enclaves had significantly higher cancer risks due to HAPs (p < 0.001) than non-enclaves. When looking at specific ethnic origins, Iraqi, Palestinian, and Lebanese enclaves had significantly higher cancer risks due to HAPs (all p < 0.01) than non-enclaves. Results reveal significant environmental injustices for Arab American enclaves that should be examined in future studies. Results suggest that environmental injustice may be another way in which Arab Americans are disadvantaged as a racialized minority group without minority status. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arab Americans; environmental injustice; hazardous air pollutants Arab Americans; environmental injustice; hazardous air pollutants
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Grineski, S.E.; W. Collins, T.; Rubio, R. Distributional Environmental Injustices for a Minority Group without Minority Status: Arab Americans and Residential Exposure to Carcinogenic Air Pollution in the US. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4899.

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