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Article

Distribution of Refractive Errors among Healthy Infants and Young Children between the Age of 6 to 36 Months in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia—A Pilot Study

1
Optometry & Vision Science Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur 50200, Malaysia
2
Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Queen Elizabeth, Karung Berkunci No. 2029, Kota Kinabalu 88586, Sabah, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234730
Received: 29 September 2019 / Revised: 27 October 2019 / Accepted: 28 October 2019 / Published: 27 November 2019
Uncorrected refractive error, especially myopia, in young children can cause permanent visual impairment in later life. However, data on the normative development of refractive error in this age group is limited, especially in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of refractive error in a sample of infants and young children between the ages of 6 to 36 months in a prospective, cross-sectional study. Cycloplegic retinoscopy was conducted on both eyes of 151 children of mean age 18.09 ± 7.95 months. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error for the right and left eyes was +0.85 ± 0.97D and +0.86 ± 0.98D, respectively. The highest prevalence of refractive error was astigmatism (26%), followed by hyperopia (12.7%), myopia (1.3%) and anisometropia (0.7%). There was a reduction of hyperopic refractive error with increasing age. Myopia was seen to emerge at age 24 months. In conclusion, the prevalence of astigmatism and hyperopia in infants and young children was high, but that of myopia and anisometropia was low. There was a significant reduction in hyperopic refractive error towards emmetropia with increasing age. It is recommended that vision screening be conducted early to correct significant refractive error that may cause disruption to clear vision. View Full-Text
Keywords: infants; young children; refractive error infants; young children; refractive error
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yahya, A.N.; Sharanjeet-Kaur, S.; Akhir, S.M. Distribution of Refractive Errors among Healthy Infants and Young Children between the Age of 6 to 36 Months in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia—A Pilot Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4730. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234730

AMA Style

Yahya AN, Sharanjeet-Kaur S, Akhir SM. Distribution of Refractive Errors among Healthy Infants and Young Children between the Age of 6 to 36 Months in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia—A Pilot Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(23):4730. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234730

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yahya, Arifah Nur, Sharanjeet Sharanjeet-Kaur, and Saadah Mohamed Akhir. 2019. "Distribution of Refractive Errors among Healthy Infants and Young Children between the Age of 6 to 36 Months in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia—A Pilot Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 23: 4730. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234730

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