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Open AccessArticle

Assessment of Socio-Demographic Factors, Mother and Child Health Status, Water, Sanitation, and Hygienic Conditions Existing in a Hilly Rural Village of Nepal

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Department of Nursing, College of Health & Welfare, Woosong University, Daejeon 300718, Korea
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International Vaccine Institute, Seoul 08826, Korea
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Epidemiology and Disease Control Division, Department of Health Services, Teku, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
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District Public Health Office, Nuwakot 44900, Nepal
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Department of Railroad Integrated System Engineering, Woosong University, Daejeon 300718, Korea
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Innovative Design and Integrated Manufacturing Nepal, Grishma Marg, Babarmahal-11, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
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Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
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Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Changwon 51390, Korea
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
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Department of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203965
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 17 October 2019
In many low income developing countries, socioeconomic, environmental and demographic factors have been linked to around half of the disease related deaths that occur each year. The aim of this study is to investigate the sociodemographic factors, mother and child health status, water, sanitation, and hygienic conditions of a Nepalese community residing in a hilly rural village, and to identify factors associated with mother and child health status and the occurrence of diarrheal and febrile disease. A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out and 315 households from the village of Narjamandap were included in this study. Factors associated with diarrhea, febrile disease, and full maternal and under-five immunizations were assessed using logistic regression. Results showed that higher education level (middle school versus primary education; Odds Ratio (OR): 0.55, p = 0.04; high school versus primary education; OR 0.21, p = 0.001) and having a toilet facility at home were significantly associated with a lower risk of developing diarrhea and febrile disease (OR 0.49, p = 0.01), while, interestingly, the use of improved water supply was associated with higher risk (OR 3.07, p = 0.005). In terms of maternal immunization, the odds of receiving a tetanus toxoid vaccination were higher in women who had regular antenatal checkups (OR 12.9, p < 0.001), and in those who developed complications during pregnancy (OR 4.54, p = 0.04); for under-five immunization, the odds of receiving full vaccination were higher among children from households that reported diarrhea (OR 2.76, p < 0.001). The findings of this study indicated that gaps still exist in the mother and child healthcare being provided, in terms of receiving antenatal checkups and basic immunizations, as evidenced by irregular antenatal checkups, incomplete and zero vaccination cases, and higher under-five deaths. Specific public health interventions to promote maternal health and the health of under-five children are suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: socio-demographic; mother and child health; water; sanitation; hygiene; immunization; social network; Nepal socio-demographic; mother and child health; water; sanitation; hygiene; immunization; social network; Nepal
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Bhandari, P.; Bak, J.; Lee, K.-S.; Chon, Y.; Bhattachan, A.; Rimal, P.; Shrestha, B.R.; Bhandari, B.; Moon, J.-O.; Wu, N.; Chu, W.-S.; Song, C.-K.; Lee, C.S.; Mogasale, V.; Ahn, S.-H. Assessment of Socio-Demographic Factors, Mother and Child Health Status, Water, Sanitation, and Hygienic Conditions Existing in a Hilly Rural Village of Nepal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3965.

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