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Open AccessArticle

Higher Levels of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) Is Associated with Developing Psychomotor Deficiency: The Cross- Sectional Bi-Township Analysis for The New Hypothesis

1
Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences and School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan
2
Department of Childhood Education and Nursery, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy & Science, Tainan City 71710, Taiwan
3
Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Dept. of Oral Hygiene, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan
4
Center for Osteoimmunology and Biotechnology Research (COBR), School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University KMU Hospital, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan
5
Lab of Molecular Microbial Immunity, Div. of Periodontology, the Eastman Institute for Oral Health (EIOH), School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14620, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173082
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 24 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Adolescents and Children Health Research)
The aim of this study was to reassess and confirm the relationship between early childhood caries (ECC) and manifestations of psychomotor deficiency in 4–6-yr-old kindergarteners, which has remained elusive to date. A cross-sectional study with bi-township analysis was designed whereby 353 kindergarteners, aged 4–6 whose caries were greater (dmft (decayed, missing and filled teeth, dmft index) = 5.25) than that of the national average, located in a rural township of central Taiwan were recruited using simple random-selection. Besides the personal, demographic, and dietary information, the measurements for caries and the amended comprehensive scales (CCDI) of children’s psychomotor development were used to address their relationship. One-way ANOVA vs. multiple linear regression were employed to compare the differences of variables between age, gender, BMI (Body Mass Index), and dmft scores vs. relationships among all variables, respectively. The results confirmed that there was a positive relationship between severe ECC (dmft > 3~8) and psychomotor deficiency (i.e., expressive language and comprehension-concept scales, etc.) amongst the kindergarteners analyzed. Our cross-sectional bi-township analysis has confirmed that there is indeed an association between severe ECC and psychomotor deficiency in kindergarteners, and we suggest that this may arise through critical stages of growth, not only via personal language communications, but psycho-social engagements as well. Therefore, a new hypothesis is proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: severe childhood caries (ECC) and dmft scores; psychomotor vs. language development; CCDI vs. MCDI; pre-school children severe childhood caries (ECC) and dmft scores; psychomotor vs. language development; CCDI vs. MCDI; pre-school children
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Liang, C.-Y.; Liu, Y.-C.G.; Shieh, T.-Y.; Tseng, Y.-C.; Teng, A. .-T. Higher Levels of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) Is Associated with Developing Psychomotor Deficiency: The Cross- Sectional Bi-Township Analysis for The New Hypothesis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3082.

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