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Open AccessArticle

Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatiotemporal Analysis of Mumps from 2004 to 2018 in Chongqing, China

1
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
2
Chongqing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chongqing 400042, China
3
Department of Medical Informatics Library, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
4
Department of Behavioral and Environmental Health, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39213, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173052
Received: 14 July 2019 / Revised: 17 August 2019 / Accepted: 19 August 2019 / Published: 22 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergence and Re-Emergence of Mumps Virus Infection)
Mumps vaccines have been widely used in recent years, but frequent mumps outbreaks and re-emergence around the world have not stopped. Mumps still remains a serious public health problem with a high incidence in China. The status of mumps epidemics in Chongqing, the largest city in China, is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and spatiotemporal characteristics of mumps and to provide a scientific basis for formulating effective strategies for its prevention and control. Surveillance data of mumps in Chongqing from January 2004 to December 2018 were collected from the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting Information System. A descriptive analysis was conducted to understand the epidemiological characteristics. Hot spots and spatiotemporal patterns were identified by performing a spatial autocorrelation analysis, a purely spatial scan, and a spatiotemporal scan at the county level based on geographic information systems. A total of 895,429 mumps cases were reported in Chongqing, with an annual average incidence of 36.34 per 100,000. The yearly incidence of mumps decreased markedly from 2004 to 2007, increased sharply from 2007 to 2011, and then tapered with a two-year cyclical peak after 2011. The onset of mumps showed an obvious bimodal seasonal distribution, with a higher peak of mumps observed from April to July of each year. Children aged 5–9 years old, males, and students were the prime high-risk groups. The spatial distribution of mumps did not exhibit significant global autocorrelation in most years, but local indicators of spatial autocorrelation and scan statistics detected high-incidence clusters which were mainly located in the midwestern, western, northeastern, and southwestern parts of Chongqing. The aggregation time frame detected by the purely temporal scan was between March 2009 and July 2013. The incidence of mumps in Chongqing from 2004 to 2018 featured significant spatial heterogeneity and spatiotemporal clustering. The findings of this study might assist public health agencies to develop real-time space monitoring, especially in the clustering regions and at peak periods; to improve immunization strategies for long-term prevention; and to deploy health resources reasonably. View Full-Text
Keywords: mumps; epidemiology; spatiotemporal analysis; cluster mumps; epidemiology; spatiotemporal analysis; cluster
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, H.; Zhao, H.; Ou, R.; Xiang, H.; Hu, L.; Jing, D.; Sharma, M.; Ye, M. Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatiotemporal Analysis of Mumps from 2004 to 2018 in Chongqing, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3052. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173052

AMA Style

Zhu H, Zhao H, Ou R, Xiang H, Hu L, Jing D, Sharma M, Ye M. Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatiotemporal Analysis of Mumps from 2004 to 2018 in Chongqing, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(17):3052. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173052

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Han; Ou, Rong; Xiang, Haiyan; Hu, Ling; Jing, Dan; Sharma, Manoj; Ye, Mengliang. 2019. "Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatiotemporal Analysis of Mumps from 2004 to 2018 in Chongqing, China" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 17: 3052. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173052

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