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Open AccessCommunication

Blood Lead Concentrations and Antibody Levels to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella among U.S. Children

1
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
2
Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
3
Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
4
Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173035
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 22 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Environmental Health and Disease)
Child blood lead concentrations have been associated with measures of immune dysregulation in nationally representative study samples. However, response to vaccination—often considered the gold standard in immunotoxicity testing—has not been examined in relation to typical background lead concentrations common among U.S. children. The present study estimated the association between blood lead concentrations and antigen-specific antibody levels to measles, mumps, and rubella in a nationally representative sample of 7005 U.S. children aged 6–17 years. Data from the 1999–2004 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. In the adjusted models, children with blood lead concentrations between 1 and 5 µg/dL had an 11% lower anti-measles (95% CI: −16, −5) and a 6% lower anti-mumps antibody level (95% CI: −11, −2) compared to children with blood lead concentrations <1 µg/dL. The odds of a seronegative anti-measles antibody level was approximately two-fold greater for children with blood lead concentrations between 1 and 5 µg/dL compared to children with blood lead concentrations <1 µg/dL (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.1). The adverse associations observed in the present study provide further evidence of potential immunosuppression at blood lead concentrations <5 µg/dL, the present Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; NHANES; MMR; vaccine; vaccination; immunotoxicology; immune; immunology; B cell; T cell; seronegative; seropositive; herd immunity lead; NHANES; MMR; vaccine; vaccination; immunotoxicology; immune; immunology; B cell; T cell; seronegative; seropositive; herd immunity
MDPI and ACS Style

Jusko, T.A.; Singh, K.; Greener, E.A.; Oktapodas Feiler, M.; Thevenet-Morrison, K.; Lawrence, B.P.; Wright, R.O.; Thurston, S.W. Blood Lead Concentrations and Antibody Levels to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella among U.S. Children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3035. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173035

AMA Style

Jusko TA, Singh K, Greener EA, Oktapodas Feiler M, Thevenet-Morrison K, Lawrence BP, Wright RO, Thurston SW. Blood Lead Concentrations and Antibody Levels to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella among U.S. Children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(17):3035. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173035

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jusko, Todd A.; Singh, Kyra; Greener, Elizabeth A.; Oktapodas Feiler, Marina; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Lawrence, B. P.; Wright, Robert O.; Thurston, Sally W. 2019. "Blood Lead Concentrations and Antibody Levels to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella among U.S. Children" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 17: 3035. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173035

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