Next Article in Journal
Physical Activity as a Regulatory Variable between Adolescents’ Motivational Processes and Satisfaction with Life
Previous Article in Journal
Environmental Influences on Food Behaviour
Open AccessReview

How to Obtain a Reliable Estimate of Occupational Exposure? Review and Discussion of Models’ Reliability

Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152764
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 24 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 2 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling Tools for Occupational Exposure Assessment)
Evaluation and validation studies of quantitative exposure models for occupational exposure assessment are still scarce and generally only consider a limited number of exposure scenarios. The aim of this review was to report the current state of knowledge of models’ reliability in terms of precision, accuracy, and robustness. A systematic review was performed through searches of major scientific databases (Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed), concerning reliability of Tier1 (“ECETOC TRA”-European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment, MEASE, and EMKG-Expo-Tool) and Tier2 models (STOFFENMANAGER® and “ART”-Advanced Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Tool). Forty-five studies were identified, and we report the complete information concerning model performance in different exposure scenarios, as well as between-user reliability. Different studies describe the ECETOC TRA model as insufficient conservative to be a Tier1 model, in different exposure scenarios. Contrariwise, MEASE and EMKG-Expo-Tool seem to be conservative enough, even if these models have not been deeply evaluated. STOFFENMANAGER® resulted the most balanced and robust model. Finally, ART was generally found to be the most accurate and precise model, with a medium level of conservatism. Overall, the results showed that no complete evaluation of the models has been conducted, suggesting the need for correct and harmonized validation of these tools. View Full-Text
Keywords: occupational exposure assessment; Advanced REACH Tool (ART); ECETOC TRA; STOFFENMANAGER®; TREXMO; MEASE; EMKG-Expo-Tool; accuracy; REACH occupational exposure assessment; Advanced REACH Tool (ART); ECETOC TRA; STOFFENMANAGER®; TREXMO; MEASE; EMKG-Expo-Tool; accuracy; REACH
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Spinazzè, A.; Borghi, F.; Campagnolo, D.; Rovelli, S.; Keller, M.; Fanti, G.; Cattaneo, A.; Cavallo, D.M. How to Obtain a Reliable Estimate of Occupational Exposure? Review and Discussion of Models’ Reliability. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2764.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop