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Characterizing the Hourly Variation of Urban Heat Islands in a Snowy Climate City during Summer

School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China
Institute of Loess Plateau, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China
Shenyang Meteorological Bureau, Shenyang 110168, China
School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2467;
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
PDF [11139 KB, uploaded 11 July 2019]


Temporal variation of urban heat island (UHI) intensity is one of the most important themes in UHI studies. However, fine-scale temporal variability of UHI with explicit spatial information is sparse in the literature. Based on the hourly air temperature from 195 meteorological stations during August 2015 in Changchun, China, hourly spatiotemporal patterns of UHI were mapped to explore the temporal variability and the effects of land use on the thermal environment using time series analysis, air temperature profiling, and spatial analysis. The results showed that: (1) high air temperature does not indicate strong UHI intensity. The nighttime UHI intensity (1.51 °C) was much stronger than that in the daytime (0.49 °C). (2) The urban area was the hottest during most of the day except the period from late morning to around 13:00 when there was about a 40% possibility for an “inverse UHI intensity” to appear. Paddy land was the coolest in the daytime, while woodland had the lowest temperature during the nighttime. (3) The rural area had higher warming and cooling rates than the urban area after sunrise and sunset. It appeared that 23 °C was the threshold at which the thermal characteristics of different land use types changed significantly. View Full-Text
Keywords: hourly; air temperature; urban heat island intensity; land use; temporal variability hourly; air temperature; urban heat island intensity; land use; temporal variability

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Yang, C.; Wang, R.; Zhang, S.; Ji, C.; Fu, X. Characterizing the Hourly Variation of Urban Heat Islands in a Snowy Climate City during Summer. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2467.

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