Honghu Lake, which listed in the “Ramsar Convention”, is the seventh largest freshwater lake in China and is regarded as one of the biggest freshwater product output areas in China. The toxic element distribution in cultured and wild fish and the corresponding health risks through fish consumption from Honghu area were investigated. The mean concentration in the muscle of cultured and wild fish (Carassius auratus
and Ctenopharyngodon idellus
) decreased in the order: Zn (18.94) > Cu (0.8489) > Cr (0.2840) > Pb (0.2052) and Zn (16.30) > Cr (1.947) > Cu (0.4166) > Pb (0.0525) > Cd (0.0060) (mean; mg/kg, wet weight). Scales (Multi factor pollution index (MPI) = 3.342) and the liver (MPI = 1.276) were regarded as the main accumulation tissues for cultured fish, and the bladder (MPI = 0.640) and intestine (MPI = 0.477) were regarded as the main accumulation tissues for wild fish. There were no obvious health risks associated with the consumption of cultured and wild fish based on the calculated results of the target hazard quotient (THQ), carcinogenic risk (CR), and estimated weekly intake (EWI). Pb and Cr were recognized as the major health risk contributors for inhabitants through wild and cultured fish consumption. Cultured fish had a greater health risk than wild fish based on the calculation results of THQ and CR. Muscle consumption resulted in more health risks than mixed edible tissues for cultured fish, but for wild fish, the conclusion was the opposite. Mixed fish (cultured:wild = 1:1) muscle consumption had relatively lower risks than the consumption of cultured or wild fish muscle separately. Consuming no more than 465 g/day (wet wt) of cultured fish muscle, 68 g/day (wet wt) of wild fish muscle, 452 g/day (wet wt) of mixed cultured fish edible tissues or 186 g/day (wet wt) of mixed wild fish edible tissues from the Honghu area can assure human health.
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