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Open AccessArticle

Lipid Profiles, Glycated Hemoglobin, and Diabetes in People Living at High Altitude in Nepal

1
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington 6021, New Zealand
2
Norvic International Hospital, Kathmandu 14126, Nepal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091041
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 10 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
This study aimed to describe lipid profiles and the distribution of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of a high altitude population of Nepal and to explore associations between these metabolic risk variables and altitude. A cross-sectional survey of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors was conducted among 521 people living at four different altitude levels, all above 2800 m, in the Mustang and Humla districts of Nepal. Urban participants (residents at 2800 m and 3620 m) had higher total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) than rural participants. A high ratio of TC to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) (TC/HDL ≥ 5.0) was found in 23.7% (95% CI 19.6, 28.2) and high TG (≥1.7 mmol/L) in 43.3% (95% CI 38.4, 48.3) of participants overall. Mean HbA1c levels were similar at all altitude levels although urban participants had a higher prevalence of diabetes. Overall, 6.9% (95% CI 4.7, 9.8) of participants had diabetes or were on hypoglycaemic treatment. There was no clear association between lipid profiles or HbA1c and altitude in a multivariate analysis adjusted for possible confounding variables. Residential settings and associated lifestyle practices are more strongly associated with lipid profiles and HbA1c than altitude amongst high altitude residents in Nepal. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipid profile; total cholesterol; triglyceride; high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; glycated hemoglobin; diabetes; high altitude; Nepal lipid profile; total cholesterol; triglyceride; high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; glycated hemoglobin; diabetes; high altitude; Nepal
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Aryal, N.; Weatherall, M.; Bhatta, Y.K.D.; Mann, S. Lipid Profiles, Glycated Hemoglobin, and Diabetes in People Living at High Altitude in Nepal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1041.

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