Next Article in Journal
Illuminating the Psychological Experience of Elderly Loneliness from a Societal Perspective: A Qualitative Study of Alienation between Older People and Society
Previous Article in Journal
Development and Validation of a Behavioural Index for Adaptation to High Summer Temperatures among Urban Dwellers
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 822;

Dissipation and Residues of Pyrethrins in Leaf Lettuce under Greenhouse and Open Field Conditions

College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Pin Lin
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1010 KB, uploaded 21 July 2017]   |  


Pyrethrins are nowadays widely used for prevention and control of insects in leaf lettuce. However, there is a concern about the pesticide residue in leaf lettuce. A reliable analytical method for determination of pyrethrins (pyrethrin—and П, cinerin І and П, and jasmolin І and П) in leaf lettuce was developed by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Recoveries of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce at three spiking levels were 99.4–104.0% with relative standard deviations of 0.9–3.1% (n = 5). Evaluation of dissipation and final residues of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce were determined at six different locations, including the open field, as well as under greenhouse conditions. The initial concentration of pyrethrins in greenhouse (0.57 mg/kg) was higher than in open field (0.25 mg/kg) and the half-life for pyrethrins disappearance in field lettuce (0.7 days) was less than that greenhouse lettuce (1.1 days). Factors such as rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, and crop growth rate are likely to have caused these results. The final residue in leaf lettuce was far below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) (1 mg/kg established by the European Union (EU), Australia, Korea, Japan). View Full-Text
Keywords: dissipation; residue; leaf lettuce; pyrethrins; GC/MS dissipation; residue; leaf lettuce; pyrethrins; GC/MS

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, L.; Feng, X.; Zhang, H. Dissipation and Residues of Pyrethrins in Leaf Lettuce under Greenhouse and Open Field Conditions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 822.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top