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Open AccessArticle

Exploring the Microalga Euglena cantabrica by Pressurized Liquid Extraction to Obtain Bioactive Compounds

1
Institute of Research in Food Sciences, CIAL (UAM-CSIC), Nicolás Cabrera 9, Campus Universitario de Cantoblanco. 28049 Madrid, Spain
2
Analytical Chemistry Research Group (FQM-323), Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas edif. B3, 23071 Jaén, Spain
3
Spanish Bank of algae (BEA), Instituto de Oceanografía y Cambio Global (IOCAG), Fundación Canaria Parque Científico y Tecnológico, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPG), 35230 Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(6), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18060308
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 5 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
In the present study, the chemical composition of the microalga Euglena cantabrica was investigated. The extraction of bioactive compounds was done using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) at different temperatures (40–180 °C) and using green solvents (ethanol-water mixtures). A statistical design of experiments was used to optimize the maximum antioxidant capacity of the extracts by response surface methodology. The antioxidant capacity was determined through the inhibition of 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, while the chemical analyses of the extracts were carried out using different chromatographic techniques. Chlorophylls and carotenoids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) and carbohydrates by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and high-pressure size-exclusion chromatography coupled to an evaporative light-scattering detector (HPSEC-ELSD). The results showed different possibilities for the extraction conditions, depending on the desired bioactivity or chemical composition. Briefly, (i) mixtures of ethanol-water containing around 40% ethanol at 180 °C gave the best antioxidant capacity, (ii) mixtures containing around 50% ethanol at 110 °C gave the best yield of β-glucan paramylon, and (iii) the use of pure ethanol at a low temperature (40 °C) is the best choice for the recovery of carotenoids such as diatoxanthin. Summing up, E. cantabrica seems to be a good candidate to be used in biorefinery to obtain different bioactive compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Euglena cantabrica; pressurized liquid extraction; carotenoid; carbohydrates; response surface; microalga; paramylon Euglena cantabrica; pressurized liquid extraction; carotenoid; carbohydrates; response surface; microalga; paramylon
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Muñóz-Almagro, N.; Gilbert-López, B.; M. Carmen, P.-R.; García-Fernandez, Y.; Almeida, C.; Villamiel, M.; Mendiola, J.A.; Ibáñez, E. Exploring the Microalga Euglena cantabrica by Pressurized Liquid Extraction to Obtain Bioactive Compounds. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 308.

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