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Open AccessArticle

Nutritional Profiling and the Value of Processing By-Products from Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)

1
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia No 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain
2
Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, 46100 Burjassot, València, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020101
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 21 January 2020 / Accepted: 3 February 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
Fish processing industries generate a large volume of discards. In order to fulfil with the principles of a sustainable circular economy, it is necessary to maintain aquaculture by-products in the food chain through the production of high-value biomolecules that can be used as novel ingredients. In this study, we try to give value to the gilthead sea bream by-products, evaluating the composition and the nutritional value of the muscle and six discards commonly obtained from the fish processing industry (fishbone, gills, guts, heads, liver, and skin), which represent ≈ 61% of the whole fish. Significant differences were detected among muscle and by-products for fatty acid and amino acid profile, as well as mineral content. The discards studied were rich in protein (10%–25%), showing skin and fishbone to have the highest contents. The amino acid profile reflected the high quality of its protein, with 41%–49% being essential amino acids—lysine, leucine, and arginine were the most abundant amino acids. Guts, liver, and skin were the fattiest by-products (25%–35%). High contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (31%–34%), n-3 fatty acids (12%–14%), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (6%–8%) characterized these discards. The head displayed by far the highest ash content (9.14%), which was reflected in the mineral content, especially in calcium and phosphorous. These results revealed that gilthead sea bream by-products can be used as source of value-added products such as protein, oils, and mineral supplements. View Full-Text
Keywords: fish discards; valuable compounds; amino acids; fatty acid profile; mineral composition fish discards; valuable compounds; amino acids; fatty acid profile; mineral composition
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Pateiro, M.; Munekata, P.E.S.; Domínguez, R.; Wang, M.; Barba, F.J.; Bermúdez, R.; Lorenzo, J.M. Nutritional Profiling and the Value of Processing By-Products from Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata). Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 101.

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