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Eckol Inhibits Particulate Matter 2.5-Induced Skin Keratinocyte Damage via MAPK Signaling Pathway

1
School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
2
Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan 47392, Korea
4
Department of Chemistry and Cosmetics, College of Natural Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contributed equally to this study.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(8), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17080444
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 24 July 2019 / Accepted: 25 July 2019 / Published: 27 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae)
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Abstract

Toxicity of particulate matter (PM) towards the epidermis has been well established in many epidemiological studies. It is manifested in cancer, aging, and skin damage. In this study, we aimed to show the mechanism underlying the protective effects of eckol, a phlorotannin isolated from brown seaweed, on human HaCaT keratinocytes against PM2.5-induced cell damage. First, to elucidate the underlying mechanism of toxicity of PM2.5, we checked the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, which contributed significantly to cell damage. Experimental data indicate that excessive ROS caused damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA and induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, eckol (30 μM) decreased ROS generation, ensuring the stability of molecules, and maintaining a steady mitochondrial state. The western blot analysis showed that PM2.5 promoted apoptosis-related protein levels and activated MAPK signaling pathway, whereas eckol protected cells from apoptosis by inhibiting MAPK signaling pathway. This was further reinforced by detailed investigations using MAPK inhibitors. Thus, our results demonstrated that inhibition of PM2.5-induced cell apoptosis by eckol was through MAPK signaling pathway. In conclusion, eckol could protect skin HaCaT cells from PM2.5-induced apoptosis via inhibiting ROS generation. View Full-Text
Keywords: phlorotannin; particulate matter; reactive oxygen species; keratinocytes phlorotannin; particulate matter; reactive oxygen species; keratinocytes
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Zhen, A.X.; Hyun, Y.J.; Piao, M.J.; Fernando, P.D.S.M.; Kang, K.A.; Ahn, M.J.; Yi, J.M.; Kang, H.K.; Koh, Y.S.; Lee, N.H.; Hyun, J.W. Eckol Inhibits Particulate Matter 2.5-Induced Skin Keratinocyte Damage via MAPK Signaling Pathway. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 444.

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