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Integrated Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and MS/MS-Based Molecular Networking Reveals the Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Phenotypes of the Sea Slater Ligia exotica

1,2,3, 1,2,3,* and 1,2,3
1
Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, China
2
Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China
3
Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(7), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17070395
Received: 16 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Abstract

The sea slater Ligia exotica is believed to have effects of reducing swelling and relieving pain in Chinese folk medicine. However, the scientific foundation of using the sea slater Ligia spp. as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory material remains elusive. In the present study, various organic extracts from sea slater L. exotica were subjected to biological screening employing in vitro and in vivo models, and chemical phenotypes of the biologically active extract were deciphered by integrated gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiling and MS/MS-based molecular networking. The results demonstrated, for the first time, that petroleum ether extract (PE) from L. exotica possessed remarkable anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Moreover, intragastric administration of PE at 200 mg/kg produced analgesic effects in both the writhing test and hot plate test. GC-MS analysis revealed that Z-9-hexadecenoic acid and 6-octadecenoic acid dominated in the volatile compositions of PE. Molecular networking (MN) suggested great chemical diversity within L. exotica. In total, 69 known compounds were identified in Ligia extracts by MS/MS spectral matching, and at least 7 analogues from two clusters of nitrogen-containing compounds (MN3,4) were strongly suggested as novel compounds. The molecular families MN1,3,4 were almost exclusively detected in the biologically active PE and ethyl acetate extract (EE). Importantly, various known compounds identified in MN1 were reported to possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in the literature, which may contribute to the observed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of L. exotica. The present study not only demonstrated the ethnopharmaceutical value of L. exotica for pain-relief in Chinese folk medicine, but also suggested that sea slaters may represent a promising source for discovery of novel analgesic and anti-inflammatory compounds in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ligia sp.; analgesic effects; anti-inflammatory activities; molecular networking; GC-MS Ligia sp.; analgesic effects; anti-inflammatory activities; molecular networking; GC-MS
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Yue, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, J. Integrated Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and MS/MS-Based Molecular Networking Reveals the Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Phenotypes of the Sea Slater Ligia exotica. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 395.

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