Next Article in Journal
The α9α10 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Antagonist αO-Conotoxin GeXIVA[1,2] Alleviates and Reverses Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain
Next Article in Special Issue
Marine Bacteria, A Source for Alginolytic Enzyme to Disrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms
Previous Article in Journal
Four Antioxidant Peptides from Protein Hydrolysate of Red Stingray (Dasyatis akajei) Cartilages: Isolation, Identification, and In Vitro Activity Evaluation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Marine Rare Actinomycetes: A Promising Source of Structurally Diverse and Unique Novel Natural Products
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Bromoperoxidase Producing Bacillus spp. Isolated from the Hypobranchial Glands of A Muricid Mollusc Are Capable of Tyrian Purple Precursor Biogenesis

1
Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia
2
Southern Cross Plant Science, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia
3
ARC Industrial Transformation Training Centre for Functional Grains, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050264
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bacteria as Sources of Bioactive Compounds)
  |  
PDF [1897 KB, uploaded 13 May 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

The secondary metabolite Tyrian purple, also known as shellfish purple and royal purple, is a dye with historical importance for humans. The biosynthetic origin of Tyrian purple in Muricidae molluscs is not currently known. A possible role for symbiotic bacteria in the production of tyrindoxyl sulphate, the precursor to Tyrian purple stored in the Australian species, Dicathais orbita, has been proposed. This study aimed to culture bacterial symbionts from the purple producing hypobranchial gland, and screen the isolates for bromoperoxidase genes using molecular methods. The ability of bromoperoxidase positive isolates to produce the brominated indole precursor to Tyrian purple was then established by extraction of the culture, and analysis by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). In total, 32 bacterial isolates were cultured from D. orbita hypobranchial glands, using marine agar, marine agar with hypobranchial gland aqueous extracts, blood agar, thiosulphate citrate bile salts sucrose agar, and cetrimide agar at pH 7.2. These included 26 Vibrio spp., two Bacillus spp., one Phaeobacter sp., one Shewanella sp., one Halobacillus sp. and one Pseudoalteromonas sp. The two Bacillus species were the only isolates found to have coding sequences for bromoperoxidase enzymes. LC–MS analysis of the supernatant and cell pellets from the bromoperoxidase producing Bacillus spp. cultured in tryptone broth, supplemented with KBr, confirmed their ability to produce the brominated precursor to Tyrian purple, tyrindoxyl sulphate. This study supports a potential role for symbiotic Bacillus spp. in the biosynthesis of Tyrian purple. View Full-Text
Keywords: shellfish purple; bacillus; bromoperoxidase; tyrindoxyl sulphate; whelk shellfish purple; bacillus; bromoperoxidase; tyrindoxyl sulphate; whelk
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ngangbam, A.K.; Mouatt, P.; Smith, J.; Waters, D.L.E.; Benkendorff, K. Bromoperoxidase Producing Bacillus spp. Isolated from the Hypobranchial Glands of A Muricid Mollusc Are Capable of Tyrian Purple Precursor Biogenesis. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 264.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top