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Open AccessArticle

Valorization of Aquaculture By-Products of Salmonids to Produce Enzymatic Hydrolysates: Process Optimization, Chemical Characterization and Evaluation of Bioactives

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Grupo de Biotecnología y Bioprocesos Marinos, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM-CSIC), C/Eduardo Cabello, 6, CP 36208 Vigo, Galicia, Spain
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Laboratorio de Reciclado y Valorización de Materiales Residuales (REVAL), Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM-CSIC), CP 36208 Vigo, Galicia, Spain
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Laboratorio de Bioquímica de Alimentos, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM-CSIC), CP 36208 Vigo, Galicia, Spain
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Department of Life Sciences of the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), Avenida Mestre José Veiga, Braga 4715-330, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(12), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17120676
Received: 5 November 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
In the present manuscript, various by-products (heads, trimmings, and frames) generated from salmonids (rainbow trout and salmon) processing were evaluated as substrates for the production of fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs), potentially adequate as protein ingredients of aquaculture feeds. Initially, enzymatic conditions of hydrolysis were optimized using second order rotatable designs and multivariable statistical analysis. The optimal conditions for the Alcalase hydrolysis of heads were 0.1% (v/w) of enzyme concentration, pH 8.27, 56.2°C, ratio (Solid:Liquid = 1:1), 3 h of hydrolysis, and agitation of 200 rpm for rainbow trout and 0.2% (v/w) of enzyme, pH 8.98, 64.2 °C, 200 rpm, 3 h of hydrolysis, and S:L = 1:1 for salmon. These conditions obtained at 100 mL-reactor scale were then validated at 5L-reactor scale. The hydrolytic capacity of Alcalase and the protein quality of FPHs were excellent in terms of digestion of wastes (Vdig > 84%), high degrees of hydrolysis (Hm > 30%), high concentration of soluble protein (Prs > 48 g/L), good balance of amino acids, and almost full in vitro digestibility (Dig > 93%). Fish oils were recovered from wastes jointly with FPHs and bioactive properties of hydrolysates (antioxidant and antihypertensive) were also determined. The salmon FPHs from trimmings + frames (TF) showed the higher protein content in comparison to the rest of FPHs from salmonids. Average molecular weights of salmonid-FPHs ranged from 1.4 to 2.0 kDa and the peptide sizes distribution indicated that hydrolysates of rainbow trout heads and salmon TF led to the highest percentages of small peptides (0–500 Da). View Full-Text
Keywords: salmonids by-products valorization; fish protein hydrolysates; bioactives; mathematical optimization salmonids by-products valorization; fish protein hydrolysates; bioactives; mathematical optimization
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Vázquez, J.A.; Sotelo, C.G.; Sanz, N.; Pérez-Martín, R.I.; Rodríguez-Amado, I.; Valcarcel, J. Valorization of Aquaculture By-Products of Salmonids to Produce Enzymatic Hydrolysates: Process Optimization, Chemical Characterization and Evaluation of Bioactives. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 676.

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