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Open AccessArticle

Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Bromophenolic Compounds in the Red Alga Vertebrata lanosa

Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Institute of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Schöpfstraße 41, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Institute of Biological Sciences, Applied Ecology & Phycology, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 3, 18059 Rostock, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current Address: (H.N.N.) Faculty of Pharmacy, PHENIKAA University, Hanoi 12116, Vietnam and PHENIKAA Research and Technology Institute (PRATI), A&A Green Phoenix Group JSC, No. 167 Hoang Ngan, Trung Hoa, Cau Giay, Hanoi 11313, Vietnam.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(12), 675;
Received: 25 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 29 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae)
Bromophenols are a class of compounds occurring in red algae that are thought to play a role in chemical protection; however, their exact function is still not fully known. In order to investigate their occurrence, pure standards of seven bromophenols were isolated from a methanolic extract of the epiphytic red alga Vertebrata lanosa collected in Brittany, France. The structures of all compounds were determined by NMR and MS. Among the isolated substances, one new natural product, namely, 2-amino-5-(3-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)ureido)pentanoic acid was identified. An HPLC method for the separation of all isolated substances was developed using a Phenomenex C8(2) Luna column and a mobile phase comprising 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in water and acetonitrile. Method validation showed that the applied procedure is selective, linear (R2 ≥ 0.999), precise (intra-day ≤ 6.28%, inter-day ≤ 5.21%), and accurate (with maximum displacement values of 4.93% for the high spikes, 4.80% for the medium spikes, and 4.30% for the low spikes). For all standards limits of detection (LOD) were lower than 0.04 μg/mL and limits of quantification (LOQ) lower than 0.12 μg/mL. Subsequently, the method was applied to determine the bromophenol content in Vertebrata lanosa samples from varying sampling sites and collection years showing values between 0.678 and 0.005 mg/g dry weight for different bromophenols with significant variations between the sampling years. Bioactivity of seven isolated bromophenols was tested in agar diffusion tests against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. Three compounds showed a small zone of inhibition against both test organisms at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine algae; macro algae; bromophenols; HPLC; quantification; isolation marine algae; macro algae; bromophenols; HPLC; quantification; isolation
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Hofer, S.; Hartmann, A.; Orfanoudaki, M.; Nguyen Ngoc, H.; Nagl, M.; Karsten, U.; Heesch, S.; Ganzera, M. Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Bromophenolic Compounds in the Red Alga Vertebrata lanosa. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 675.

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