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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of the Noncanonical Regulatory and Transporter Genes in Atratumycin Biosynthesis and Production in a Heterologous Host

by Zhijie Yang 1,2, Xin Wei 1,2, Jianqiao He 1,2, Changli Sun 1, Jianhua Ju 1,2,* and Junying Ma 1,*
CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Materia Medica, RNAM Center for Marine Microbiology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(10), 560;
Received: 15 August 2019 / Revised: 26 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 29 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep-Sea Natural Products II)
Atratumycin is a cyclodepsipeptide with activity against Mycobacteria tuberculosis isolated from deep-sea derived Streptomyces atratus SCSIO ZH16NS-80S. Analysis of the atratumycin biosynthetic gene cluster (atr) revealed that its biosynthesis is regulated by multiple factors, including two LuxR regulatory genes (atr1 and atr2), two ABC transporter genes (atr29 and atr30) and one Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory gene (atr32). In this work, three regulatory and two transporter genes were unambiguously determined to provide positive, negative and self-protective roles during biosynthesis of atratumycin through bioinformatic analyses, gene inactivations and trans-complementation studies. Notably, an unusual Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein Atr32 was characterized as a negative regulator; the function of Atr32 is distinct from previous studies. Five over-expression mutant strains were constructed by rational application of the regulatory and transporter genes; the resulting strains produced significantly improved titers of atratumycin that were ca. 1.7–2.3 fold greater than wild-type (WT) producer. Furthermore, the atratumycin gene cluster was successfully expressed in Streptomyces coelicolor M1154, thus paving the way for the transfer and recombination of large DNA fragments. Overall, this finding sets the stage for understanding the unique biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important atratumycin and lays the foundation for generating anti-tuberculosis lead compounds possessing novel structures. View Full-Text
Keywords: atratumycin; LuxR; SARP; ABC transporter; heterologous expression atratumycin; LuxR; SARP; ABC transporter; heterologous expression
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Yang, Z.; Wei, X.; He, J.; Sun, C.; Ju, J.; Ma, J. Characterization of the Noncanonical Regulatory and Transporter Genes in Atratumycin Biosynthesis and Production in a Heterologous Host. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 560.

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