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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010036

Immunostimulatory Effects of Chitooligosaccharides on RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages via Regulation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways

1,2,3,4
,
1,2,4,*
,
1,2,4
,
1,2,4
,
1,2,4
,
1,2,4
and
1,2,4,*
1
Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, China
2
Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, No. 1 Wenhai Road, Qingdao 266237, China
3
College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
4
Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin 2019)
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Abstract

Chitooligosaccharides (COS), the hydrolyzed products of chitin and chitosan, can be obtained by various methods. In this study, water-soluble COS were prepared from α- and β-chitosan by microwave-assisted degradation and their immunostimulatory effects were investigated in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that α-COS were more active than β-COS in promoting the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting indicated that COS also enhanced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α. Further analyses demonstrated that COS induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, p85 and Akt, and the nuclear translocation of p65, indicating that they are able to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways dependent on nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. In conclusion, COS activate RAW 264.7 cells via the MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and are potential novel immune potentiators. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitooligosaccharide; immunostimulatory activity; RAW 264.7 cells; mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK); phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt chitooligosaccharide; immunostimulatory activity; RAW 264.7 cells; mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK); phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Yang, Y.; Xing, R.; Liu, S.; Qin, Y.; Li, K.; Yu, H.; Li, P. Immunostimulatory Effects of Chitooligosaccharides on RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages via Regulation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 36.

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