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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110450

Pharmaceutical Standardization and Physicochemical Characterization of Traditional Ayurvedic Marine Drug: Incinerated Conch Shell (Shankha Bhasma)

1
Drug Standardization Laboratory, Bharatiya Sanskriti Darshan Trust’s Integrated Cancer Treatment and Research Centre, Wagholi, Pune 412207, India
2
Bhasma Section, Atharva Nature Healthcare Pvt. Ltd., Wagholi, Pune 412207, India
3
CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract

Natural resources such as plants, animals and minerals have always been used by mankind to develop drugs and marine world is no exception. Marine by-products like conches, pearls, mother of pearl shells, corals and so forth have been used by traditional Ayurvedic practitioners for centuries. The unique methods of these preparations are scientifically designed to eliminate unwanted impurities and convert them into bioavailable form. In this study, Conch (Xanchus pyrum) was used as a marine resource of calcium carbonate and was converted pharmaceutically from its aragonite form to calcite. All the steps of preparations and changes in the properties therein were documented and validated. Further, traditional as well as modern analytical tools were used to study its physical and chemical characters to develop a monograph. The physical characterization included particle size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR). Metal composition and heavy metal limits were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES). This study revealed the rearrangement of aragonite crystals into calcite form by grinding, trituration with aloe vera juice and incineration under controlled conditions. Moreover, the finished product was found to be devoid of organic matrix that is nacre. This study creates a foundation for the development of a master formula for commonly used Shankha Bhasma in Ayurvedic medicines. View Full-Text
Keywords: conch; incineration; Shankha Bhasma; pharmaceutical standardization; physico-chemical properties; calcium carbonate; calcite; aragonite; calcium group (Sudha varga) drugs conch; incineration; Shankha Bhasma; pharmaceutical standardization; physico-chemical properties; calcium carbonate; calcite; aragonite; calcium group (Sudha varga) drugs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Chavan, S.; Tayade, S.; Gupta, V.; Deshmukh, V.; Sardeshmukh, S. Pharmaceutical Standardization and Physicochemical Characterization of Traditional Ayurvedic Marine Drug: Incinerated Conch Shell (Shankha Bhasma). Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 450.

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