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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(10), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16100381

Massive Gene Expansion and Sequence Diversification Is Associated with Diverse Tissue Distribution, Regulation and Antimicrobial Properties of Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factors in Shrimp

1
Laboratory of Immunology Applied to Aquaculture, Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis SC 88040-900, Brazil
2
Laboratorio de Genética e Inmunología Molecular, Instituto de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso 2373223, Chile
3
Department of Cell Biology, Embryology and Genetics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis SC 88040-900, Brazil
4
Núcleo Biotecnología Curauma, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso 2373223, Chile
5
Interactions Hôtes-Pathogènes-Environnements, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, CEDEX 5, 34090 Montpellier, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are antimicrobial peptides with a central β-hairpin structure able to bind to microbial components. Mining sequence databases for ALFs allowed us to show the remarkable diversity of ALF sequences in shrimp. We found at least seven members of the ALF family (Groups A to G), including two novel Groups (F and G), all of which are encoded by different loci with conserved gene organization. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that gene expansion and subsequent diversification of the ALF family occurred in crustaceans before shrimp speciation occurred. The transcriptional profile of ALFs was compared in terms of tissue distribution, response to two pathogens and during shrimp development in Litopenaeus vannamei, the most cultivated species. ALFs were found to be constitutively expressed in hemocytes and to respond differently to tissue damage. While synthetic β-hairpins of Groups E and G displayed both antibacterial and antifungal activities, no activity was recorded for Group F β-hairpins. Altogether, our results showed that ALFs form a family of shrimp AMPs that has been the subject of intense diversification. The different genes differ in terms of tissue expression, regulation and function. These data strongly suggest that multiple selection pressures have led to functional diversification of ALFs in shrimp. View Full-Text
Keywords: host defense peptide; antimicrobial peptide; anti-LPS factor; host‒microbe relationship; functional diversity; invertebrate immunity; crustacean; antimicrobial activity host defense peptide; antimicrobial peptide; anti-LPS factor; host‒microbe relationship; functional diversity; invertebrate immunity; crustacean; antimicrobial activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Matos, G.M.; Schmitt, P.; Barreto, C.; Farias, N.D.; Toledo-Silva, G.; Guzmán, F.; Destoumieux-Garzón, D.; Perazzolo, L.M.; Rosa, R.D. Massive Gene Expansion and Sequence Diversification Is Associated with Diverse Tissue Distribution, Regulation and Antimicrobial Properties of Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factors in Shrimp. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 381.

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