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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(10), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16100372

Optimization of Growth and Carotenoid Production by Haloferax mediterranei Using Response Surface Methodology

1
Algal Biotechnology Group, CIDERTA and RENSMA, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva, Spain
2
Department of Integrated Sciences, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, 21007 Huelva, Spain
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, 21007 Huelva, Spain
4
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Division, Agrochemistry and Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Alicante, E-03080 Alicante, Spain
5
Department of Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Seville, 41012 Seville, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bacteria as Sources of Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

Haloferax mediterranei produces C50 carotenoids that have strong antioxidant properties. The response surface methodology (RSM) tool helps to accurately analyze the most suitable conditions to maximize C50 carotenoids production by haloarchaea. The effects of temperature (15–50 °C), pH (4−10), and salinity (5–28% NaCl (w/v)) on the growth and carotenoid content of H. mediterranei were analyzed using the RSM approach. Growth was determined by measuring the turbidity at 600 nm. To determine the carotenoid content, harvested cells were lysed by freeze/thawing, then re-suspended in acetone and the total carotenoid content determined by measuring the absorbance at 494 nm. The analysis of carotenoids was performed by an HPLC system coupled with mass spectrometry. The results indicated the theoretical optimal conditions of 36.51 or 36.81 °C, pH of 8.20 or 8.96, and 15.01% or 12.03% (w/v) salinity for the growth of haloarchaea (OD600 = 12.5 ± 0.64) and production of total carotenoids (3.34 ± 0.29 mg/L), respectively. These conditions were validated experimentally for growth (OD600 = 13.72 ± 0.98) and carotenoid production (3.74 ± 0.20 mg/L). The carotenoid profile showed four isomers of bacterioruberin (89.13%). Our findings suggest that the RSM approach is highly useful for determining optimal conditions for large-scale production of bacterioruberin by haloarchaea. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterioruberin; Haloferax mediterranei; response surface methodology (RSM); central composite design (CCD) bacterioruberin; Haloferax mediterranei; response surface methodology (RSM); central composite design (CCD)
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Montero-Lobato, Z.; Ramos-Merchante, A.; Fuentes, J.L.; Sayago, A.; Fernández-Recamales, Á.; Martínez-Espinosa, R.M.; Vega, J.M.; Vílchez, C.; Garbayo, I. Optimization of Growth and Carotenoid Production by Haloferax mediterranei Using Response Surface Methodology. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 372.

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