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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(10), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16100364

Effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima Supplementation and a Systematic Physical Exercise Program on the Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness of Overweight or Obese Subjects: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Crossover Controlled Trial

1
Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez 32310, Chihuahua, Mexico
2
Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Ciudad de Mexico 04510, Mexico
3
Facultad de Ciencias de la Cultura Física, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez 32310, Chihuahua, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Drugs in the Management of Metabolic Diseases)
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Abstract

Excess weight and obesity are major risk factors for many chronic diseases, and weight-loss interventions often include systematic exercise and nutritional supplements. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent/synergistic effects of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima supplementation (six weeks, 4.5 g·day−1) and a systematic physical exercise program (six weeks, twice weekly) on the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness of overweight and obese subjects. To achieve this, 27 overweight and 25 obese sedentary male subjects were assigned to four interventions through a randomized double-blind, crossover controlled trial: A physical exercise program, with (SE) or without (Ex) Spirulina maxima; or no-exercise program, with (Sm) and without (C) Spirulina maxima. The body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters were taken during a maximum intensity test. As compared to the C group, the body fat percentage of the SE, Sm and Ex groups was reduced (p < 0.05), while their maximal oxygen uptake improved (r = −0.40), and obese subjects benefited more significantly. Weight loss, the time to reach fatigue and the onset of blood lactate accumulation were improved in both of the Spirulina maxima supplemented groups, regardless of the subjects’ body weight. Spirulina maxima supplementation synergistically improves the effects of systematic exercise on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters in overweight, but mostly in individuals with obesity. Trial registration: Clinical Trials, NCT02837666. Registered 19 July 2016. View Full-Text
Keywords: Overweight; obesity; body fat; maximal oxygen uptake; double-blind; randomized controlled trial Overweight; obesity; body fat; maximal oxygen uptake; double-blind; randomized controlled trial
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Hernández-Lepe, M.A.; López-Díaz, J.A.; Juárez-Oropeza, M.A.; Hernández-Torres, R.P.; Wall-Medrano, A.; Ramos-Jiménez, A. Effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima Supplementation and a Systematic Physical Exercise Program on the Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness of Overweight or Obese Subjects: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Crossover Controlled Trial. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 364.

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