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Open AccessArticle

Ciguatoxins and Maitotoxins in Extracts of Sixteen Gambierdiscus Isolates and One Fukuyoa Isolate from the South Pacific and Their Toxicity to Mice by Intraperitoneal and Oral Administration

1
AgResearch, Ruakura Research Centre, Private Bag 3240, Hamilton 3214, New Zealand
2
Cawthron Institute, Halifax Street Campus, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7042, New Zealand
3
Climate Change Cluster, School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, Sydney 2007, NSW, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(7), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15070208
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Harmful Marine Phytoplankton)
Ciguatoxins (CTXs), and possibly maitotoxins (MTXs), are responsible for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, an important health problem for consumers of reef fish (such as inhabitants of islands in the South Pacific Ocean). The habitational range of the Gambierdiscus species is expanding, and new species are being discovered. In order to provide information on the potential health risk of the Gambierdiscus species, and one Fukuyoa species (found in the Cook Islands, the Kermadec Islands, mainland New Zealand, and New South Wales, Australia), 17 microalgae isolates were collected from these areas. Unialgal cultures were grown and extracts of the culture isolates were analysed for CTXs and MTXs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and their toxicity to mice was determined by intraperitoneal and oral administration. An isolate of G. carpenteri contained neither CTXs nor MTXs, while 15 other isolates (including G. australes, G. cheloniae, G. pacificus, G. honu, and F. paulensis) contained only MTX-1 and/or MTX-3. An isolate of G. polynesiensis contained both CTXs and MTX-3. All the extracts were toxic to mice by intraperitoneal injection, but those containing only MTX-1 and/or -3 were much less toxic by oral administration. The extract of G. polynesiensis was highly toxic by both routes of administration. View Full-Text
Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; Gambierdiscus; ciguatoxins; maitotoxins; toxicity to mice ciguatera fish poisoning; Gambierdiscus; ciguatoxins; maitotoxins; toxicity to mice
MDPI and ACS Style

Munday, R.; Murray, S.; Rhodes, L.L.; Larsson, M.E.; Harwood, D.T. Ciguatoxins and Maitotoxins in Extracts of Sixteen Gambierdiscus Isolates and One Fukuyoa Isolate from the South Pacific and Their Toxicity to Mice by Intraperitoneal and Oral Administration. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 208.

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