Next Article in Journal
Four Aromatic Sulfates with an Inhibitory Effect against HCV NS3 Helicase from the Crinoid Alloeocomatella polycladia
Next Article in Special Issue
Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli for Producing Astaxanthin as the Predominant Carotenoid
Previous Article in Journal
Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic acid) Composite Microparticles
Previous Article in Special Issue
Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(4), 116;

Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Lycopene β-Cyclase from Macrophytic Red Alga Bangia fuscopurpurea

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
Jiangsu Institute of Oceanology and Marine Fisheries, Nantong 226007, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tatsuya Sugawara
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Carotenoids)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2372 KB, uploaded 11 April 2017]   |  


Lycopene cyclases cyclize the open ends of acyclic lycopene (ψ,ψ-carotene) into β- or ε-ionone rings in the crucial bifurcation step of carotenoid biosynthesis. Among all carotenoid constituents, β-carotene (β,β-carotene) is found in all photosynthetic organisms, except for purple bacteria and heliobacteria, suggesting a ubiquitous distribution of lycopene β-cyclase activity in these organisms. In this work, we isolated a gene (BfLCYB) encoding a lycopene β-cyclase from Bangia fuscopurpurea, a red alga that is considered to be one of the primitive multicellular eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms and accumulates carotenoid constituents with both β- and ε-rings, including β-carotene, zeaxanthin, α-carotene (β,ε-carotene) and lutein. Functional complementation in Escherichia coli demonstrated that BfLCYB is able to catalyze cyclization of lycopene into monocyclic γ-carotene (β,ψ-carotene) and bicyclic β-carotene, and cyclization of the open end of monocyclic δ-carotene (ε,ψ-carotene) to produce α-carotene. No ε-cyclization activity was identified for BfLCYB. Sequence comparison showed that BfLCYB shares conserved domains with other functionally characterized lycopene cyclases from different organisms and belongs to a group of ancient lycopene cyclases. Although B. fuscopurpurea also synthesizes α-carotene and lutein, its enzyme-catalyzing ε-cyclization is still unknown. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bangia fuscopurpurea; red algae; lycopene cyclase; carotenoid; metabolism Bangia fuscopurpurea; red algae; lycopene cyclase; carotenoid; metabolism

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cao, T.-J.; Huang, X.-Q.; Qu, Y.-Y.; Zhuang, Z.; Deng, Y.-Y.; Lu, S. Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Lycopene β-Cyclase from Macrophytic Red Alga Bangia fuscopurpurea. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 116.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top