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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 109;

Coral Carbonic Anhydrases: Regulation by Ocean Acidification

Marine Biology Department, Centre Scientifique de Monaco, 8 Quai Antoine 1°, 98 000 Monaco, Monaco
Laboratoire International Associé 647 BIOSENSIB, Centre Scientifique de Monaco-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 8 Quai Antoine 1°, 98 000 Monaco, Monaco
Neurofarba Department, University of Florence, Via Ugo Schiff 6, Polo Scientifico, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Firenze, Italy
Present address: University of Bordeaux, UMR EPOC CNRS 5805, 33400 Talence, France
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Se-Kwon Kim
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Proteins and Peptides)
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Global change is a major threat to the oceans, as it implies temperature increase and acidification. Ocean acidification (OA) involving decreasing pH and changes in seawater carbonate chemistry challenges the capacity of corals to form their skeletons. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated how rates of calcification respond to ocean acidification scenarios, comparatively few studies tackle how ocean acidification impacts the physiological mechanisms that drive calcification itself. The aim of our paper was to determine how the carbonic anhydrases, which play a major role in calcification, are potentially regulated by ocean acidification. For this we measured the effect of pH on enzyme activity of two carbonic anhydrase isoforms that have been previously characterized in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. In addition we looked at gene expression of these enzymes in vivo. For both isoforms, our results show (1) a change in gene expression under OA (2) an effect of OA and temperature on carbonic anhydrase activity. We suggest that temperature increase could counterbalance the effect of OA on enzyme activity. Finally we point out that caution must, thus, be taken when interpreting transcriptomic data on carbonic anhydrases in ocean acidification and temperature stress experiments, as the effect of these stressors on the physiological function of CA will depend both on gene expression and enzyme activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: coral; calcification; ocean acidification; carbonic anhydrase; gene expression; enzyme activity; temperature; pH coral; calcification; ocean acidification; carbonic anhydrase; gene expression; enzyme activity; temperature; pH

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Zoccola, D.; Innocenti, A.; Bertucci, A.; Tambutté, E.; Supuran, C.T.; Tambutté, S. Coral Carbonic Anhydrases: Regulation by Ocean Acidification. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 109.

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