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Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, Wageningen 6703 HB, The Netherlands
Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Science Education, Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Persatuan Guru Republik Indonesia (IKIP PGRI) Bali, Jl. Seroja Tonja, Denpasar 80238, Indonesia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kirsten Benkendorff
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(5), 87;
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 2 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
PDF [2278 KB, uploaded 3 May 2016]


Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial compounds; sponges; sponge-associated microbes antimicrobial compounds; sponges; sponge-associated microbes

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Indraningrat, A.A.G.; Smidt, H.; Sipkema, D. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 87.

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