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Case Report

Case of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Associated with Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in an Immunocompromised Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Split, University of Split School of Medicine, Soltanska 1, 21 000 Split, Croatia
2
Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Split, University of Split School of Medicine, Spinciceva 1, 21 000 Split, Croatia
3
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Hospital of Split, University of Split School of Medicine, Soltanska 1, 21 000 Split, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Adam Reich
Medicina 2021, 57(9), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57090882
Received: 17 July 2021 / Revised: 21 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 27 August 2021
We present a case of an immunocompromised systemic lupus erythematosus female patient admitted to our hospital for general impairment, monoparesis, and temporary cognitive disability. The case represented a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge primarily because of a wide range of differential diagnosis options (CNS lupus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, viral meningoencephalitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, limbic encephalitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis—ADEM). Brain MRI findings were compatible with ADEM, and microbiological tests showed a cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) which is rarely associated with ADEM despite the increasing number of immunocompromised patients prone to symptomatic CMV reactivation. Our patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone, immunoglobulin (IVIG), along with antiviral therapy resulting in a favorable therapeutic effect. In conclusion, only a few described ADEM cases have been associated with CMV, and none of them, to the best of our knowledge, in an immunocompromised patient. In this case, a multidisciplinary approach and broad diagnostic considerations were decisive for successful treatment and outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytomegalovirus; encephalomyelitis; demyelinating diseases; lupus erythematosus; systemic cytomegalovirus; encephalomyelitis; demyelinating diseases; lupus erythematosus; systemic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pavicic Ivelja, M.; Dolic, K.; Marasovic Krstulovic, D.; Glavina, G.; Ivic, I. Case of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Associated with Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in an Immunocompromised Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient. Medicina 2021, 57, 882. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57090882

AMA Style

Pavicic Ivelja M, Dolic K, Marasovic Krstulovic D, Glavina G, Ivic I. Case of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Associated with Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in an Immunocompromised Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient. Medicina. 2021; 57(9):882. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57090882

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pavicic Ivelja, Mirela, Kresimir Dolic, Daniela Marasovic Krstulovic, Gordana Glavina, and Ivo Ivic. 2021. "Case of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Associated with Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in an Immunocompromised Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient" Medicina 57, no. 9: 882. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57090882

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