Background and Objectives:
Wnt signaling leads to stimulation of osteoblasts and it reduces osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via the regulation of the osteprotegrin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligan (RANKL). Wnt signaling pathways are regulated by their physiological antagonists such as sclerostin (SOST) as well as WNT-5a. The aim of this study was to determine the total amount of Sclerostin and WNT-5a in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in sites with a continuum from a healthy to diseased periodontium. Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional study, a total of 20 patients with generalized periodontitis, 10 subjects with gingivitis as well as 14 individuals with a healthy periodontium were recruited upon clinical and radiographic periodontal examination. In patients diagnosed with periodontitis, GCF samples were collected from periodontitis, gingivitis and healthy sites, while gingivitis patients provided samples from gingivitis and healthy sites. In healthy patients, only healthy sites were sampled. Protein total amount of SOST and WNT-5a were quantified by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results:
A total of 108 GCF samples were collected from a total of 44 individuals. When all periodontitis (n
= 51), gingivitis (n
= 12) and healthy (n
= 45) sites were analyzed regardless of the patient diagnosis, periodontitis sites demonstrated significantly elevated WNT-5a total amounts (p
= 0.03) when compared to gingivitis sites. Gingivitis sites demonstrated a trend of more total SOST (p
= 0.09) when compared to periodontitis and healthy sites. Within each patient diagnostic category, sites showed similar SOST and WNT-5a total amounts (p
> 0.05). Conclusions:
WNT-5a levels in GCF depend on the stage of periodontitis sites. SOST trended higher in the GCF of gingivitis sites but similar in chronic periodontitis and healthy sites. WNT-5a and SOST play a crucial role in periodontal tissue remodeling and depend on the inflammatory and osteoclastogenic activities.
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