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An In Vitro Anti-Cancer Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Essential Oil by Inducing Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line

1
Department of Sciences and Liberal Arts, Amnatcharoen Campus, Mahidol University, Amnatcharoen 37000, Thailand
2
Department of Public Health, Amnatcharoen Campus, Mahidol University, Amnatcharoen 37000, Thailand
3
Department of Molecular Tropical Medicine and Genetics, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
4
Department of Microbiology, Gyeongsang Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52727, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edgaras Stankevičius
Medicina 2021, 57(8), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080784
Received: 17 June 2021 / Revised: 17 July 2021 / Accepted: 27 July 2021 / Published: 30 July 2021
Background and Objectives: The effects of Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil (OTEO) against gastric cancer remain unknown and merit investigation. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the anti-cancer activity of OTEO was examined in a human gastric cancer cell line (AGS). After OTEO treatment, AGS cell viability was determined by an MTT assay, and inhibition of metastasis was determined by cell migration and invasion assays. The expression of apoptosis-related genes in treated AGS cells was determined by qRT-PCR. Results: OTEO significantly decreased AGS cell viability in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 163.42 µg/mL) and effectively inhibited cell migration and invasion. Morphological examination demonstrated that OTEO induced cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation, which are considered typical morphologies of apoptotic cell death. Pro-apoptotic genes (TP53, BAX, and BAK) were significantly up-regulated, while anti-apoptotic genes (BCL-2 and BCL-xL) were significantly down-regulated after treatment with OTEO. In addition, significantly increased gene expression was detected for CASP8, CASP9, and CASP3 in AGS cells exposed to OTEO. GC-MS analysis demonstrated that the major compound of OTEO was caryophyllene (25.85%) and α-pinene (11.66%). Conclusions: This in vitro study demonstrates for the first time that OTEO has potential anti-gastric cancer activity and may induce apoptosis in AGS cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ocimum tenuiflorum; essential oil; gastric cancer; cell migration; cell invasion; apoptosis Ocimum tenuiflorum; essential oil; gastric cancer; cell migration; cell invasion; apoptosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Boonyanugomol, W.; Rukseree, K.; Prapatpong, P.; Reamtong, O.; Baik, S.-C.; Jung, M.; Shin, M.-K.; Kang, H.-L.; Lee, W.-K. An In Vitro Anti-Cancer Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Essential Oil by Inducing Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line. Medicina 2021, 57, 784. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080784

AMA Style

Boonyanugomol W, Rukseree K, Prapatpong P, Reamtong O, Baik S-C, Jung M, Shin M-K, Kang H-L, Lee W-K. An In Vitro Anti-Cancer Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Essential Oil by Inducing Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line. Medicina. 2021; 57(8):784. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080784

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut, Kamolchanok Rukseree, Pornpan Prapatpong, Onrapak Reamtong, Seung-Chul Baik, Myunghwan Jung, Min-Kyoung Shin, Hyung-Lyun Kang, and Woo-Kon Lee. 2021. "An In Vitro Anti-Cancer Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Essential Oil by Inducing Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line" Medicina 57, no. 8: 784. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080784

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