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Review

Neutropenic Enterocolitis and Sepsis: Towards the Definition of a Pathologic Profile

1
Section of Legal Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Ospedale Colonnello D’Avanzo, Viale Europa 12, 71100 Foggia, Italy
2
Department of Surgical Pathology, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area, Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
3
Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli” IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy
4
CEMAD Digestive Disease Center, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli” IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
5
Department of Medical Sciences, IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy
6
Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00186 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Salvatore Di Somma
Medicina 2021, 57(6), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57060638
Received: 6 May 2021 / Revised: 18 June 2021 / Accepted: 18 June 2021 / Published: 20 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies for Treatment of Sepsis)
Background: Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE), which in the past was also known as typhlitis or ileocecal syndrome for the segment of the gastrointestinal tract most affected, is a nosological entity that is difficult to diagnose and whose pathogenesis is not fully known to date. Initially described in pediatric patients with leukemic diseases, it has been gradually reported in adults with hematological malignancies and non-hematological conditions, such as leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, and also myelodysplastic syndromes, as well as being associated with other immunosuppressive causes such as AIDS treatment, therapy for solid tumors, and organ transplantation. Therefore, it is associated with high mortality due to the rapid evolution in worse clinical pictures: rapid progression to ischemia, necrosis, hemorrhage, perforation, multisystem organ failure, and sepsis. Case report: A case report is included to exemplify the clinical profile of patients with NE who develop sepsis. Literature Review: To identify a specific profile of subjects affected by neutropenic enterocolitis and the entity of the clinical condition most frequently associated with septic evolution, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. The inclusion criteria were as follows: English language, full-text availability, human subjects, and adult subjects. Finally, the papers were selected after the evaluation of the title and abstract to evaluate their congruity with the subject of this manuscript. Following these procedures, 19 eligible empirical studies were included in the present review. Conclusions: Despite the recent interest and the growing number of publications targeting sepsis and intending to identify biomarkers useful for its diagnosis, prognosis, and for the understanding of its pathogenesis, and especially for multi-organ dysfunction, and despite the extensive research period of the literature review, the number of publications on the topic “neutropenic enterocolitis and sepsis” appears to be very small. In any case, the extrapolated data allowed us to conclude that the integration of medical history, clinical and laboratory data, radiological imaging, and macroscopic and histological investigations can allow us to identify a specific pathological profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: neutropenic enterocolitis; sepsis; chemotherapy-induced damage neutropenic enterocolitis; sepsis; chemotherapy-induced damage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bertozzi, G.; Maiese, A.; Passaro, G.; Tosoni, A.; Mirijello, A.; Simone, S.D.; Baldari, B.; Cipolloni, L.; La Russa, R. Neutropenic Enterocolitis and Sepsis: Towards the Definition of a Pathologic Profile. Medicina 2021, 57, 638. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57060638

AMA Style

Bertozzi G, Maiese A, Passaro G, Tosoni A, Mirijello A, Simone SD, Baldari B, Cipolloni L, La Russa R. Neutropenic Enterocolitis and Sepsis: Towards the Definition of a Pathologic Profile. Medicina. 2021; 57(6):638. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57060638

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bertozzi, Giuseppe, Aniello Maiese, Giovanna Passaro, Alberto Tosoni, Antonio Mirijello, Stefania D. Simone, Benedetta Baldari, Luigi Cipolloni, and Raffaele La Russa. 2021. "Neutropenic Enterocolitis and Sepsis: Towards the Definition of a Pathologic Profile" Medicina 57, no. 6: 638. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57060638

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