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Current Evidence of the Oncological Benefit-Risk Profile of Hormone Replacement Therapy

The Controversial History of Hormone Replacement Therapy

Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di, 33100 Udine, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 602;
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 12 September 2019 / Accepted: 13 September 2019 / Published: 18 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormone Replacement Therapy: Benefits and Risks)
The history of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) started in the 1960s, with very high popularity in the 1990s. The first clinical trials on HRT and chronic postmenopausal conditions were started in the USA in the late 1990s. After the announcement of the first results of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, which showed that HRT had more detrimental than beneficial effects, HRT use dropped. The negative results of the study received wide publicity, creating panic among some users and new guidance for doctors on prescribing HRT. The clear message from the media was that HRT had more risks than benefits for all women. In the following years, a reanalysis of the WHI trial was performed, and new studies showed that the use of HRT in younger women or in early postmenopausal women had a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, reducing coronary disease and all-cause mortality. Notwithstanding this, the public opinion on HRT has not changed yet, leading to important negative consequences for women’s health and quality of life. View Full-Text
Keywords: hormone replacement therapy; osteoporosis; breast cancer; cardiovascular disease hormone replacement therapy; osteoporosis; breast cancer; cardiovascular disease
MDPI and ACS Style

Cagnacci, A.; Venier, M. The Controversial History of Hormone Replacement Therapy. Medicina 2019, 55, 602.

AMA Style

Cagnacci A, Venier M. The Controversial History of Hormone Replacement Therapy. Medicina. 2019; 55(9):602.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cagnacci, Angelo, and Martina Venier. 2019. "The Controversial History of Hormone Replacement Therapy" Medicina 55, no. 9: 602.

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