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The Controversial History of Hormone Replacement Therapy
Review

Vaginal Health in Menopausal Women

1
Gynecology and Physiopathology of Human Reproduction Unit, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
3
Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100615
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 5 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 September 2019 / Published: 20 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormone Replacement Therapy: Benefits and Risks)
The aim of this review is to provide an overview of genitourinary health in peri- and postmenopause, particularly of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), which is part of genitourinary syndrome (GSM). This condition has a high prevalence among post-menopausal women and negatively affects a woman’s quality of life. Epidemiology, signs, symptoms, diagnostic criteria of VVA and target treatments for restoring vaginal health are discussed in light of the most recent literature. Issues related to this condition in menopausal women are under-diagnosed, lack objective diagnostic criteria, and consequently under-treated. Over the years, many treatments have been developed but their long-term effectiveness and safety have yet to be clearly defined. Patients are often dissatisfied and stop treatment, suggesting the need for a more personalized and tailored approach to achieve better compliance and thereby effectiveness. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent literature on VVA in order to help the gynecologist in the management of this condition. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaginal health; menopausal women; vulvovaginal atrophy; genitourinary syndrome vaginal health; menopausal women; vulvovaginal atrophy; genitourinary syndrome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alvisi, S.; Gava, G.; Orsili, I.; Giacomelli, G.; Baldassarre, M.; Seracchioli, R.; Meriggiola, M.C. Vaginal Health in Menopausal Women. Medicina 2019, 55, 615. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100615

AMA Style

Alvisi S, Gava G, Orsili I, Giacomelli G, Baldassarre M, Seracchioli R, Meriggiola MC. Vaginal Health in Menopausal Women. Medicina. 2019; 55(10):615. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100615

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alvisi, Stefania, Giulia Gava, Isabella Orsili, Giulia Giacomelli, Maurizio Baldassarre, Renato Seracchioli, and Maria C. Meriggiola 2019. "Vaginal Health in Menopausal Women" Medicina 55, no. 10: 615. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100615

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