Next Article in Journal
Odanacatib, a Cathepsin K Cysteine Protease Inhibitor, Kills Hookworm In Vivo
Next Article in Special Issue
Heparin: Past, Present, and Future
Previous Article in Journal
Site-Specific Labeling of Protein Kinase CK2: Combining Surface Display and Click Chemistry for Drug Discovery Applications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Marine Non-Glycosaminoglycan Sulfated Glycans as Potential Pharmaceuticals
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Strategies to Overcome Heparins’ Low Oral Bioavailability

Organic Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Laboratory, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde
Pharmaceuticals 2016, 9(3), 37;
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 15 June 2016 / Accepted: 23 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grand Celebration: 100th Anniversary of the Discovery of Heparin)
Even after a century, heparin is still the most effective anticoagulant available with few side effects. The poor oral absorption of heparins triggered the search for strategies to achieve oral bioavailability since this route has evident advantages over parenteral administration. Several approaches emerged, such as conjugation of heparins with bile acids and lipids, formulation with penetration enhancers, and encapsulation of heparins in micro and nanoparticles. Some of these strategies appear to have potential as good delivery systems to overcome heparin’s low oral bioavailability. Nevertheless, none have reached the market yet. Overall, this review aims to provide insights regarding the oral bioavailability of heparin. View Full-Text
Keywords: heparin; anticoagulant; oral bioavailability heparin; anticoagulant; oral bioavailability
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Neves, A.R.; Correia-da-Silva, M.; Sousa, E.; Pinto, M. Strategies to Overcome Heparins’ Low Oral Bioavailability. Pharmaceuticals 2016, 9, 37.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop