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Open AccessArticle

Determination of Very Low Concentration of Bisphenol A in Toys and Baby Pacifiers Using Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction by In Situ Ionic Liquid Formation and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Spanish Air Force Academy, University Centre of Defence, Coronel López Peña st., n/n, 30720 Murcia, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(10), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13100301
Received: 12 September 2020 / Revised: 5 October 2020 / Accepted: 9 October 2020 / Published: 12 October 2020
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical compound used in the manufacturing of plastics and resins whose presence in the body in low concentrations can cause serious health problems. Due to this, there is a growing interest in the scientific community to develop analytical methods that allow quantifying trace concentrations of BPA in different types of samples. The determination of this compound in toys made of plastics that can be manipulated by children leads to an extra concern, because it is possible for BPA to enter the body by introducing these toys into the mouth. This work presents a novel procedure to the quickly and easily quantification of trace levels of BPA in samples of toys and pacifiers according to the current demanding regulations. The determination of very low levels of BPA was carried out by ionic liquid dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The formation in situ of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethane)sulfonyl)imide ([C8MIm] [NTf2]), was achieved by mixing 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C8MIm]Cl) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([NTf2]Li) aqueous solutions, reaching an instant dispersion whose cloud of microdrops allows the total extraction of BPA in the IL from aqueous solutions. After centrifugation, BPA concentration in the sedimented phase was determined by HPLC. The optimal experimental conditions for the microextraction and determination of BPA in the IL were studied. The total extraction was achieved at pH 4, heating the sample at 30 °C for 5 min, using 100 µL of IL precursor volume, and spinning after the formation of dispersion at 3000 rpm for 10 min. The enrichment factor (EF) and detection limit (LOD) reached with the procedure were 299 and 0.19 µg L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviation for ten replications at the 0.5 µg L−1 level was 5.2%. Recovery studies showed a mean value for BPA recovery percentage in the samples of 99%. Additionally, a hybrid model was applied to characterize the extraction kinetics. This simple, low cost and fast method simplifies traditional microextraction techniques, representing an outstanding alternative. View Full-Text
Keywords: bisphenol A; high-performance liquid chromatography; ionic liquid; dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction; extraction kinetic studies bisphenol A; high-performance liquid chromatography; ionic liquid; dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction; extraction kinetic studies
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Vicente-Martínez, Y.; Caravaca, M.; Soto-Meca, A. Determination of Very Low Concentration of Bisphenol A in Toys and Baby Pacifiers Using Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction by In Situ Ionic Liquid Formation and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13, 301.

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