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Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12010011

The Therapeutic Potential of Naringenin: A Review of Clinical Trials

1
Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam 44340847, Iran
2
Antimicrobial and Biocontrol Agents Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, Ngoa Ekelle, Annex Fac. Sci., Yaounde 812, Cameroon
3
Department of Medical Parasitology, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61663-335, Iran
4
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari, Italy
5
OU Endocrinology, Dept. Medicine (DIMED), University of Padova, via Ospedale 105, 35128 Padova, Italy
6
AIROB, Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca Oncologica di Base, 35128 Padova, Italy
7
Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
8
Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
9
Zabol Medicinal Plants Research Center, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61615585, Iran
10
Department of Chemistry, Richardson College for the Environmental Science Complex, The University of Winnipeg, 599 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, MB R3B 2G3, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Phytochemicals on Drug Development)
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Abstract

Naringenin is a flavonoid belonging to flavanones subclass. It is widely distributed in several Citrus fruits, bergamot, tomatoes and other fruits, being also found in its glycosides form (mainly naringin). Several biological activities have been ascribed to this phytochemical, among them antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiadipogenic and cardioprotective effects. Nonetheless, most of the data reported have been obtained from in vitro or in vivo studies. Although some clinical studies have also been performed, the main focus is on naringenin bioavailability and cardioprotective action. In addition, these studies were done in compromised patients (i.e., hypercholesterolemic and overweight), with a dosage ranging between 600 and 800 μM/day, whereas the effect on healthy volunteers is still debatable. In fact, naringenin ability to improve endothelial function has been well-established. Indeed, the currently available data are very promising, but further research on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects is encouraged to improve both available production and delivery methods and to achieve feasible naringenin-based clinical formulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutraceutics; phytochemicals; chemopreventive; cardiovascular diseases; flavonoids; citrus; flavanones nutraceutics; phytochemicals; chemopreventive; cardiovascular diseases; flavonoids; citrus; flavanones
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Salehi, B.; Fokou, P.V.T.; Sharifi-Rad, M.; Zucca, P.; Pezzani, R.; Martins, N.; Sharifi-Rad, J. The Therapeutic Potential of Naringenin: A Review of Clinical Trials. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 11.

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