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Novel N4-Like Bacteriophages of Pectobacterium atrosepticum

Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, T12 P928 Cork, Ireland
Laboratory of Gene Technology, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Max Rubner-Institut, 24103 Kiel, Germany
Biomedical Research Institute and Transnational University Limburg, Hasselt University, 3590 Hasselt, Belgium
APC Microbiome Institute, University College, T12 YT20 Cork, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is dedicated to the memory of Alan Lucid who passed away on 31 August 2017 during the preparation of the manuscript.
Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11(2), 45;
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Therapy and Phage-Mediated Biological Control)
Pectobacterium atrosepticum is an economically important phytopathogen that is responsible for potato blackleg and soft rot, and for which current control strategies are limited. In this study, stem samples of potato crops exhibiting blackleg were taken from three farms in Co. Cork, Ireland, and they were found to be infected with P. atrosepticum. Three closely related bacteriophages (phages) that are specific to this phytopathogen were isolated and characterized, namely vB_PatP_CB1, vB_PatP_CB3, and vB_PatP_CB4 (abbreviated as CB1, CB3, and CB4). Both CB1 and CB3 were determined to infect 12 strains and CB4 10 strains of the 19 strains of P. atrosepticum tested. Morphology, latent periods, burst sizes, and their stability at various temperatures and pHs were also examined. Genome sequencing of the three phages revealed that they shared a minimum nucleotide identity of 93% with each other. Their genomes exhibited an Enquartavirinae genome organization, possessing several conserved proteins that were associated with phages of this group, like the type species Escherichia virus N4. Tandem electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) allowed for the identification of ten structural proteins that form the virion of CB1, six that are conserved in phage N4. Biocontrol experiments demonstrated that the phages suppress soft rot formation upon co-inoculation with P. atrosepticum on whole tubers. The results of this study indicate that CB1 related phages could be good candidates for phage-based control. View Full-Text
Keywords: phage isolation; phage characterization; Pectobacterium; blackleg; soft rot; phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria; plant disease biocontrol; phage therapy; N4-like phage phage isolation; phage characterization; Pectobacterium; blackleg; soft rot; phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria; plant disease biocontrol; phage therapy; N4-like phage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Buttimer, C.; Hendrix, H.; Lucid, A.; Neve, H.; Noben, J.-P.; Franz, C.; O’Mahony, J.; Lavigne, R.; Coffey, A. Novel N4-Like Bacteriophages of Pectobacterium atrosepticum. Pharmaceuticals 2018, 11, 45.

AMA Style

Buttimer C, Hendrix H, Lucid A, Neve H, Noben J-P, Franz C, O’Mahony J, Lavigne R, Coffey A. Novel N4-Like Bacteriophages of Pectobacterium atrosepticum. Pharmaceuticals. 2018; 11(2):45.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Buttimer, Colin, Hanne Hendrix, Alan Lucid, Horst Neve, Jean-Paul Noben, Charles Franz, Jim O’Mahony, Rob Lavigne, and Aidan Coffey. 2018. "Novel N4-Like Bacteriophages of Pectobacterium atrosepticum" Pharmaceuticals 11, no. 2: 45.

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