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Article

Aurora-Trinity: A Super-Light Client for Distributed Ledger Networks Extending the Ethereum Trinity Client

Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Floriano De Rango
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22051835
Received: 23 December 2021 / Revised: 11 February 2022 / Accepted: 22 February 2022 / Published: 25 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain for Trustworthy Internet of Things)
Light clients for distributed ledger networks can verify blockchain integrity by downloading and analyzing blockchain headers. They are designed to circumvent the high resource requirements, i.e., the large bandwidth and memory requirements that full nodes must meet, which are unsuitable for consumer-grade hardware and resource-constrained devices. Light clients rely on full nodes and trust them implicitly. This leaves them vulnerable to various types of attacks, ranging from accepting maliciously forged data to Eclipse attacks. We introduce Aurora-Trinity, a novel version of light clients that addresses the above-mentioned vulnerability by relying on our original Aurora module, which extends the Ethereum Trinity client. The Aurora module efficiently discovers the presence of malicious or Byzantine nodes in distributed ledger networks with a predefined and acceptable error rate and identifies at least one honest node for persistent or ephemeral communication. The identified honest node is used to detect the latest canonical chain head or to infer the state of an entry in the ledger without downloading the header chain, making the Aurora-Trinity client extremely efficient. It can run on consumer-grade hardware and resource-constrained devices, as the Aurora module consumes about 0.31 MB of RAM and 1 MB of storage at runtime. View Full-Text
Keywords: scalability; decentralization; light client; blockchain; trustless; Internet of Things scalability; decentralization; light client; blockchain; trustless; Internet of Things
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MDPI and ACS Style

Benčić, F.M.; Podnar Žarko, I. Aurora-Trinity: A Super-Light Client for Distributed Ledger Networks Extending the Ethereum Trinity Client. Sensors 2022, 22, 1835. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22051835

AMA Style

Benčić FM, Podnar Žarko I. Aurora-Trinity: A Super-Light Client for Distributed Ledger Networks Extending the Ethereum Trinity Client. Sensors. 2022; 22(5):1835. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22051835

Chicago/Turabian Style

Benčić, Federico M., and Ivana Podnar Žarko. 2022. "Aurora-Trinity: A Super-Light Client for Distributed Ledger Networks Extending the Ethereum Trinity Client" Sensors 22, no. 5: 1835. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22051835

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