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Article

Revisiting the Analysis of Radiative Mid-Range Wireless Link for Pacemakers

1
C4I Team, Defense Agency Technology and Quality, Jinju 52851, Korea
2
Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 04066, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030947
Received: 4 October 2021 / Revised: 17 January 2022 / Accepted: 24 January 2022 / Published: 26 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Collection Medical Applications of Sensor Systems and Devices)
The development of a wireless link for biomedical applications requires an accurate estimation of the delivered power to implanted devices. In particular, a variety of mid-range applications in the biomedical area have gained significant attention. An appropriate method for the mid-range wireless link is required to implement a continuous wireless link through human tissue. Even though formulas used in this work are all based on previous works, this paper presents an implementation of the diverse formulas for the mid-range wireless link of an implanted antenna used for a pacemaker system based on the understanding on radiation properties varied with the distances from the antenna. The formulas based on input far-field data are successfully applied to compute the power transmission for the implanted devices, whose range includes radiative near-field and far-field regions. The wireless link for a pacemaker system is evaluated through using a patch antenna immersed with different depths of human tissue. A comparison of the computed and measured results shows an excellent agreement where the validity of the evaluation is demonstrated. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiative near-field; wireless link; implanted biomedical devices; pacemakers; asymptotic Friis formula; Chu formula; integral coupling formula radiative near-field; wireless link; implanted biomedical devices; pacemakers; asymptotic Friis formula; Chu formula; integral coupling formula
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, I.; Choi, B.-H.; Lee, J.-H. Revisiting the Analysis of Radiative Mid-Range Wireless Link for Pacemakers. Sensors 2022, 22, 947. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030947

AMA Style

Kim I, Choi B-H, Lee J-H. Revisiting the Analysis of Radiative Mid-Range Wireless Link for Pacemakers. Sensors. 2022; 22(3):947. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030947

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Ilkyu, Bo-Hee Choi, and Jeong-Hae Lee. 2022. "Revisiting the Analysis of Radiative Mid-Range Wireless Link for Pacemakers" Sensors 22, no. 3: 947. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030947

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