Vehicle systems have been one of the fastest-growing fields in recent years. Vehicles are extremely helpful for understanding driver behaviors and have received significant attention from a forensic perspective. Extensive forensic research was previously conducted on on-board vehicle systems, such as an event data recorders, located in the electronic control unit or manufacturer-based infotainment systems. However, unlike previous vehicles that used only manufacturer-based infotainment systems, most vehicles today are equipped with infotainment systems such as Android Auto and Apple CarPlay. These in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) systems connect to mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. The vehicle can periodically communicate with a smartphone and thus a network outside the vehicle. Drivers can use more services in their vehicles than ever before. Accordingly, an increasing number of diverse data are being stored in vehicles, with mobile devices connected to both the vehicle and the cloud. Such data include information that can be of significant help to investigators in solving problems during forensic investigations. Therefore, forensics of IVI systems such as Android Auto and Apple CarPlay are becoming increasingly important. We analyzed various forensic studies conducted on Android Auto and Apple CarPlay. Most of the research was mainly focused on mobile devices connected through a wired USB connection. The use of wireless-based IVI systems has recently been increasing. However, the analysis of Android Auto and Apple CarPlay from this point of view is insufficient. Therefore, we proposed a forensic methodology that fully considers such limitations. A forensic analysis was conducted on various IVI systems. We also developed an IVI system forensics tool that works based on the proposed methodology.
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