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Article

Modular MA-XRF Scanner Development in the Multi-Analytical Characterisation of a 17th Century Azulejo from Portugal

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Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per L’ingegneria, Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, Via Antonio Scarpa 14/16, 00161 Rome, Italy
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Surface Analysis Laboratory Roma Tre—National Institute of Nuclear Physics—Roma Tre University, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome, Italy
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LIBPhys & VICARTE, Department of Physics & Department of Conservation and Restoration, NOVA School of Science and Technology, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
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Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Mario Santos Braga, 30-Centro, Niterói, RJ 24020-140, Brazil
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Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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Department of Sciences, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome, Italy
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INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome, Italy
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Ars Mensurae, Via Vincenzo Comparini 101, 00188 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in IMEKO TC-4 MetroArchaeo 2020, Trento, Italy, 22–24 October 2020.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Leucci
Sensors 2021, 21(5), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051913
Received: 10 February 2021 / Revised: 1 March 2021 / Accepted: 5 March 2021 / Published: 9 March 2021
A modular X-ray scanning system was developed, to fill in the gap between portable instruments (with a limited analytical area) and mobile instruments (with large analytical areas, and sometimes bulky and difficult to transport). The scanner has been compared to a commercial tabletop instrument, by analysing a Portuguese tile (azulejo) from the 17th century. Complementary techniques were used to achieve a throughout characterisation of the sample in a complete non-destructive approach. The complexity of the acquired X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra, due to inherent sample stratigraphy, has been resolved using Monte Carlo simulations, and Raman spectroscopy, as the most suitable technique to complement the analysis of azulejos colours, yielding satisfactory results. The colouring agents were identified as cobalt blue and a Zn-modified Naples-yellow. The stratigraphy of the area under study was partially modelled with Monte Carlo simulations. The scanners performance has been compared by evaluating the images outputs and the global spectrum. View Full-Text
Keywords: MA-XRF; Monte Carlo simulations; azulejos; Raman spectroscopy MA-XRF; Monte Carlo simulations; azulejos; Raman spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lins, S.A.B.; Manso, M.; Lins, P.A.B.; Brunetti, A.; Sodo, A.; Gigante, G.E.; Fabbri, A.; Branchini, P.; Tortora, L.; Ridolfi, S. Modular MA-XRF Scanner Development in the Multi-Analytical Characterisation of a 17th Century Azulejo from Portugal. Sensors 2021, 21, 1913. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051913

AMA Style

Lins SAB, Manso M, Lins PAB, Brunetti A, Sodo A, Gigante GE, Fabbri A, Branchini P, Tortora L, Ridolfi S. Modular MA-XRF Scanner Development in the Multi-Analytical Characterisation of a 17th Century Azulejo from Portugal. Sensors. 2021; 21(5):1913. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051913

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lins, Sergio A.B., Marta Manso, Pedro A.B. Lins, Antonio Brunetti, Armida Sodo, Giovanni E. Gigante, Andrea Fabbri, Paolo Branchini, Luca Tortora, and Stefano Ridolfi. 2021. "Modular MA-XRF Scanner Development in the Multi-Analytical Characterisation of a 17th Century Azulejo from Portugal" Sensors 21, no. 5: 1913. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051913

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