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Article

Paper-Based Competitive Immunochromatography Coupled with an Enzyme-Modified Electrode to Enable the Wireless Monitoring and Electrochemical Sensing of Cotinine in Urine

1
Biosensors and Bioanalytical Technology for Cells and Innovative Testing Device Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2
Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, SE-205 06 Malmö, Sweden
3
Biofilms—Research Center for Biointerfaces, Malmö University, SE-205 06 Malmö, Sweden
4
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fabio Di Nardo
Sensors 2021, 21(5), 1659; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051659
Received: 2 February 2021 / Revised: 21 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 28 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lateral Flow Immunoassay: Advances and Applications)
This paper proposes a combined strategy of using paper-based competitive immunochromatography and a near field communication (NFC) tag for wireless cotinine determination. The glucose oxidase labeled cotinine antibody specifically binds free cotinine in a sample, whereas the unoccupied antibody attached to BSA-cotinine at the test line on a lateral flow strip. The glucose oxidase on the strip and an assistant pad in the presence of glucose generated H2O2 and imposed the Ag oxidation on the modified electrode. This enabled monitoring of immunoreaction by either electrochemical measurement or wireless detection. Wireless sensing was realized for cotinine in the range of 100–1000 ng/mL (R2 = 0.96) in PBS medium. Undiluted urine samples from non-smokers exhibited an Ag-oxidation rate three times higher than the smoker’s urine samples. For 1:8 diluted urine samples (smokers), the proposed paper-based competitive immunochromatography coupled with an enzyme-modified electrode differentiated positive and negative samples and exhibited cotinine discrimination at levels higher than 12 ng/mL. This novel sensing platform can potentially be combined with a smartphone as a reader unit. View Full-Text
Keywords: cotinine; immunochromatography; wireless biosensor; nanomaterials cotinine; immunochromatography; wireless biosensor; nanomaterials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Larpant, N.; Kalambate, P.K.; Ruzgas, T.; Laiwattanapaisal, W. Paper-Based Competitive Immunochromatography Coupled with an Enzyme-Modified Electrode to Enable the Wireless Monitoring and Electrochemical Sensing of Cotinine in Urine. Sensors 2021, 21, 1659. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051659

AMA Style

Larpant N, Kalambate PK, Ruzgas T, Laiwattanapaisal W. Paper-Based Competitive Immunochromatography Coupled with an Enzyme-Modified Electrode to Enable the Wireless Monitoring and Electrochemical Sensing of Cotinine in Urine. Sensors. 2021; 21(5):1659. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051659

Chicago/Turabian Style

Larpant, Nutcha, Pramod K. Kalambate, Tautgirdas Ruzgas, and Wanida Laiwattanapaisal. 2021. "Paper-Based Competitive Immunochromatography Coupled with an Enzyme-Modified Electrode to Enable the Wireless Monitoring and Electrochemical Sensing of Cotinine in Urine" Sensors 21, no. 5: 1659. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051659

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