Next Article in Journal
Paper-Based Competitive Immunochromatography Coupled with an Enzyme-Modified Electrode to Enable the Wireless Monitoring and Electrochemical Sensing of Cotinine in Urine
Previous Article in Journal
Research on Cooperative Perception of MUSVs in Complex Ocean Conditions
Article

Detection of Gadolinium with an Impedimetric Platform Based on Gold Electrodes Functionalized by 2-Methylpyridine-Substituted Cyclam

1
Laboratory of Interfaces and Advanced Materials, Faculty of Sciences, University of Monastir, Monastir 5000, Tunisia
2
Laboratory for Process Control, Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutical Engineering University of Lyon, LAGEPP UMR CNRS 5007, 43 Bd 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France
3
Institute of Analytical Sciences, University of Lyon, ISA UMR CNRS 5280, 5 Rue de La Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Pedro Estrela and Alisa Rudnitskaya
Sensors 2021, 21(5), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051658
Received: 21 December 2020 / Revised: 13 February 2021 / Accepted: 24 February 2021 / Published: 28 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Gadolinium is extensively used in pharmaceuticals and is very toxic, so its sensitive detection is mandatory. This work presents the elaboration of a gadolinium chemical sensor based on 2-methylpyridine-substituted cyclam thin films, deposited on gold electrodes, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The 2-methylpyridine-substituted cyclam (bis-N-MPyC) was synthesized in three steps, including the protection of cyclam by the formation of its CH2-bridged aminal derivative; the product was characterized by liquid 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Spin-coated thin films of bis-N-MPyC on gold wafers were characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy in ATR (Attenuated Total Reflectance) mode, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. The impedimetric chemical sensor was studied in the presence of increasing concentrations of lanthanides (Gd3+, Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+). Nyquist plots were fitted with an equivalent electrical circuit including two RC circuits in series corresponding to the bis-N-MPyC film and its interface with the electrolyte. The main parameter that varies with gadolinium concentration is the resistance of the film/electrolyte interface (Rp), correlated to the rate of exchange between the proton and the lanthanide ion. Based on this parameter, the detection limit obtained is 35 pM. The bis-N-MPyC modified gold electrode was tested for the detection of gadolinium in spiked diluted negative urine control samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: gadolinium; impedance; chemical sensor; 2-methylpyridine-substituted cyclam gadolinium; impedance; chemical sensor; 2-methylpyridine-substituted cyclam
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Touzi, H.; Chevalier, Y.; Martin, M.; Ben Ouada, H.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N. Detection of Gadolinium with an Impedimetric Platform Based on Gold Electrodes Functionalized by 2-Methylpyridine-Substituted Cyclam. Sensors 2021, 21, 1658. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051658

AMA Style

Touzi H, Chevalier Y, Martin M, Ben Ouada H, Jaffrezic-Renault N. Detection of Gadolinium with an Impedimetric Platform Based on Gold Electrodes Functionalized by 2-Methylpyridine-Substituted Cyclam. Sensors. 2021; 21(5):1658. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051658

Chicago/Turabian Style

Touzi, Hassen, Yves Chevalier, Marie Martin, Hafedh Ben Ouada, and Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault. 2021. "Detection of Gadolinium with an Impedimetric Platform Based on Gold Electrodes Functionalized by 2-Methylpyridine-Substituted Cyclam" Sensors 21, no. 5: 1658. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051658

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop