Using Aerial and Vehicular NFV Infrastructures to Agilely Create Vertical Services
- It presents the definition of an NFV framework capable of integrating aerial and vehicular NFV infrastructures, to enable the cost-effective and flexible deployment of vertical services.
- It includes the detailed description of the realization of a public safety vertical use case, to emphasize the practicality and potential benefits of the proposed framework.
- It presents the integration of two remote NFV infrastructures: an infrastructure of SUAVs, which can be deployed on demand, and an automotive infrastructure, supporting the opportunistic provision of services. Both infrastructures are provided by research groups of different countries (Spain and Portugal).
- It considers the network slicing model as a design key, to exploit the ability of modifying the services in real time, in the most agile and efficient possible manner.
- It provides the implementation details of both the framework and the network services, through the use of open-source technologies.
- Finally, it includes a novel solution based on the publish–subscribe model to agilely carry out the configuration of VNFs, significantly reducing the deployment times in an emergency scenario.
2. Background and Motivation
3. Description of the Aerial and Vehicular NFV Framework
3.1. The SUAV NFV Infrastructure
3.2. The Automotive NFV Infrastructure
4. Use Case Description
4.1. Initial Vertical Service Deployment
4.2. Creating an Unheralded Vertical Service
4.3. Network Service Implementation Considerations
5. Implementation and Analysis
5.1. Experimental Testbed
5.1.1. 5G/Cloud Infrastructure Provider
5.1.2. SUAVs Infrastructure Provider
5.1.3. Automotive Infrastructure Provider
5.2. Practical Evaluation: Deployment Times Profiling
- Processing of information uploaded to the MANO platform with both the network service descriptor (NSD) and the descriptors of the virtualised functions (VNFDs) that comprise it. In this first phase, the MANO platform determines which ones of the VNFs require configuration by the VNFM element included in OSM, implemented through Juju.
- Coordination with the different VIM entities configured in the MANO platform responsible for managing and allocating the resources that will be used by the VNFs in each of the corresponding infrastructures where they are meant to be executed. Simultaneously, the MANO platform at this stage reports Juju to start the preparation of the VNF configuration environment, and for this purpose, Juju runs a series of Linux containers within the host in charge of executing OSM. In this context, a container is created for every VNF that require configuration, associates itself with one of those VNFs, and Juju carries out the appropriate software installation to enable the subsequent configuration of the associated VNF. Moreover, this is possible through the execution of a set of Juju scripts called proxy charms, which enable the use of the Ansible playbooks technology by means of the base charm layer contributed within the OSM software .
- Once OSM is notified by the VIMs about the proper instantiation of each image of every VNF (i.e., the softwarization unit loaded into the VIM with pending configuration to provide specific functionality) has been correctly carried out, it also collects the information regarding the management IP address that allows the configuration of these VNFs. Next, OSM transmits this information to Juju to proceed with the configuration tasks, executing the specified actions for each VNF in their corresponding container.
- Finally, when each container completes the configuration activity of its associated VNF, Juju sends a message to OSM to inform that the configuration process has been completed. Once OSM processes this message, the deployment of the service is considered complete.
5.3. Publish–Subscribe Configuration Function
5.4. Video Service
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|VNF (NFVI-PoP)||Brief Description of Functionality||Technical Requirements||Featured Software|
|5G Core Router (5G/Cloud Infrastructure Provider)||Implementation of the user-plane protocol stack of a 3GPP N3IWF, as well as routing functionalities towards external networks||Prototyped as a VM, using Ubuntu 16.04; 2 vCPUs, 1 GB RAM, 5 GB storage||Linux ip-gre ip-forwarding modules, and the ipsec-tools package|
|IP Telephony Server (5G/Cloud Infrastructure Provider)||Provide the functions of an IP Telephony service based on the SIP protocol (i.e., proxying of call signalling messages and user registration)||Prototyped as a VM, using Ubuntu 16.04; 1 vCPU, 1 GB RAM, 5 GB storage||Kamailio, an open-source SIP server (Linux package)|
|DNS (5G/Cloud Infrastructure Provider)||Support a name resolution service, to enable user identification in a functional IP telephony service||Prototyped as a VM, using Ubuntu 16.04; 1 vCPU, 1 GB RAM, 5 GB storage||Dnsmasq, an open-source DNS server (Linux package)|
|Access Router (SUAVs/Automotive Infrastructure Provider)||Implementation of the user-plane protocol stack of a 3GPP UE, providing access to 5G core network via an untrusted non-3GPP access||Prototyped as a VM, using Ubuntu 16.04; 1 vCPU, 1 GB RAM, 5 GB storage||Linux ip-gre and ip-forwarding modules, and the ipsec-tools package|
|Router/AP (SUAVs/Automotive Infrastructure Provider)||Implementation of a Wi-Fi access point, supporting the assignment of IP addresses using DHCP, and routing functions||Prototyped as LXC container, using Ubuntu 16.04; 1 vCPU, 128 MB RAM, 4 GB storage||Linux ip-forwarding module and isc-dhcp-server package|
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Nogales, B.; Silva, M.; Vidal, I.; Luís, M.; Valera, F.; Sargento, S.; Azcorra, A. Using Aerial and Vehicular NFV Infrastructures to Agilely Create Vertical Services. Sensors 2021, 21, 1342. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041342
Nogales B, Silva M, Vidal I, Luís M, Valera F, Sargento S, Azcorra A. Using Aerial and Vehicular NFV Infrastructures to Agilely Create Vertical Services. Sensors. 2021; 21(4):1342. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041342Chicago/Turabian Style
Nogales, Borja, Miguel Silva, Ivan Vidal, Miguel Luís, Francisco Valera, Susana Sargento, and Arturo Azcorra. 2021. "Using Aerial and Vehicular NFV Infrastructures to Agilely Create Vertical Services" Sensors 21, no. 4: 1342. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041342