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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Toward the Use of Temporary Tattoo Electrodes for Impedancemetric Respiration Monitoring and Other Electrophysiological Recordings on Skin

1
Center for Micro-BioRobotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, Pontedera, 56025 Pisa, Italy
2
Future Manufacturing Processes Research Group, School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
3
The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, Pontedera, 56025 Pisa, Italy
4
Department of Excellence in Robotics & AI, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Piazza Martiri della Libertà, 33, 56127 Pisa, Italy
5
Emerging Application Department, MED-EL Elektromedizinische Geräte Gesellschaft m.b.H., Fürstenweg 77a, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
6
Institute of Solid State Physics, NAWI Graz, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz, Austria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christian Baumgartner
Sensors 2021, 21(4), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041197
Received: 17 January 2021 / Revised: 29 January 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 8 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Physical Sensors Section 2020)
The development of dry, ultra-conformable and unperceivable temporary tattoo electrodes (TTEs), based on the ink-jet printing of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on top of commercially available temporary tattoo paper, has gained increasing attention as a new and promising technology for electrophysiological recordings on skin. In this work, we present a TTEs epidermal sensor for real time monitoring of respiration through transthoracic impedance measurements, exploiting a new design, based on the application of soft screen printed Ag ink and magnetic interlink, that guarantees a repositionable, long-term stable and robust interconnection of TTEs with external “docking” devices. The efficiency of the TTE and the proposed interconnection strategy under stretching (up to 10%) and over time (up to 96 h) has been verified on a dedicated experimental setup and on humans, fulfilling the proposed specific application of transthoracic impedance measurements. The proposed approach makes this technology suitable for large-scale production and suitable not only for the specific use case presented, but also for real time monitoring of different bio-electric signals, as demonstrated through specific proof of concept demonstrators.
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Keywords: soft electronics; conformable electronics; tattoo electronics; wearable sensors; PEDOT:PSS soft electronics; conformable electronics; tattoo electronics; wearable sensors; PEDOT:PSS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Taccola, S.; Poliziani, A.; Santonocito, D.; Mondini, A.; Denk, C.; Ide, A.N.; Oberparleiter, M.; Greco, F.; Mattoli, V. Toward the Use of Temporary Tattoo Electrodes for Impedancemetric Respiration Monitoring and Other Electrophysiological Recordings on Skin. Sensors 2021, 21, 1197. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041197

AMA Style

Taccola S, Poliziani A, Santonocito D, Mondini A, Denk C, Ide AN, Oberparleiter M, Greco F, Mattoli V. Toward the Use of Temporary Tattoo Electrodes for Impedancemetric Respiration Monitoring and Other Electrophysiological Recordings on Skin. Sensors. 2021; 21(4):1197. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041197

Chicago/Turabian Style

Taccola, Silvia; Poliziani, Aliria; Santonocito, Daniele; Mondini, Alessio; Denk, Christian; Ide, Alessandro N.; Oberparleiter, Markus; Greco, Francesco; Mattoli, Virgilio. 2021. "Toward the Use of Temporary Tattoo Electrodes for Impedancemetric Respiration Monitoring and Other Electrophysiological Recordings on Skin" Sensors 21, no. 4: 1197. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21041197

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