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Article

BiRep: A Reputation Scheme to Mitigate the Effects of Black-Hole Nodes in Delay-Tolerant Internet of Vehicles

1
INESC-ID, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1000-029 Lisboa, Portugal
2
INESC-ID/INOV, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1000-029 Lisboa, Portugal
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LASIGE, Departamento de Informática, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Danda Rawat
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030835
Received: 7 December 2020 / Revised: 17 January 2021 / Accepted: 23 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
Delay-tolerant networking (DTN) enables communication in disruptive scenarios where issues such as sparse and intermittent connectivity, long and variable delays, high latency, high error rates, or no end-to-end connectivity exist. Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is a network of the future in which integration between devices, vehicles, and users will be unlimited and universal, overcoming the heterogeneity of systems, services, applications, and devices. Delay-tolerant internet of vehicles (DT-IoV) is emerging and becoming a popular research topic due to the critical applications that can be realized, such as software or map update dissemination. For an IoV to work efficiently, a degree of cooperation between nodes is necessary to deliver messages to their destinations. However, nodes might misbehave and silently drop messages, also known as a black-hole attack, degrading network performance. Various solutions have been proposed to deal with black-hole nodes, but most are centralized or require each node to meet every other node. This paper proposes a decentralized reputation scheme called BiRep that identifies and punishes black-hole nodes in DT-IoV. BiRep is tested on the Prophet routing protocol. Simulation results show excellent performance in all scenarios, comparable or better to other reputation schemes, significantly increasing the delivery ratio of messages. View Full-Text
Keywords: reputation; black-hole attack; delay-tolerant internet of vehicles reputation; black-hole attack; delay-tolerant internet of vehicles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nabais, C.; Pereira, P.R.; Magaia, N. BiRep: A Reputation Scheme to Mitigate the Effects of Black-Hole Nodes in Delay-Tolerant Internet of Vehicles. Sensors 2021, 21, 835. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030835

AMA Style

Nabais C, Pereira PR, Magaia N. BiRep: A Reputation Scheme to Mitigate the Effects of Black-Hole Nodes in Delay-Tolerant Internet of Vehicles. Sensors. 2021; 21(3):835. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030835

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nabais, Catarina, Paulo R. Pereira, and Naercio Magaia. 2021. "BiRep: A Reputation Scheme to Mitigate the Effects of Black-Hole Nodes in Delay-Tolerant Internet of Vehicles" Sensors 21, no. 3: 835. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030835

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