BiRep: A Reputation Scheme to Mitigate the Effects of Black-Hole Nodes in Delay-Tolerant Internet of Vehicles
- BiRep is proposed as a new and completely distributed reputation scheme designed to provide an effective and robust identification and punishment of black-hole nodes in a DT-IoV network to diminish their impact on network performance. BiRep can work with any underlying routing protocol.
- The BiRep design is thoroughly described, comprising the evaluation of mechanisms for detecting black-hole nodes, based on message forwarding proofs stored in exchanged messages, the gains achieved by exchanging reputation information with other nodes, and the effect of different punishment actions over black-hole nodes.
- BiRep performance is studied in different scenarios and compared with other related work.
2. Background and Related Work
2.1. Delay-Tolerant Internet of Vehicles
2.2. Attacks in DT-IoV
2.3. Black-Hole Solutions in DT-IoV
3.2. Reputation System Performance Metrics
3.2.1. Routing Protocol Metrics
3.2.2. Node Classification Metrics
4. Building the Reputation System
4.1. Approach to Building the Reputation System
4.2. Simulation Scenario
4.3. Detection Phase
4.3.1. Independent Detection Scheme: Scheme Description
4.3.2. Independent Detection Scheme: Analysis and Discussion
4.3.3. Exchange Good Nodes Tables Detection Scheme: Scheme Description
4.3.4. Exchange Good Nodes Tables Detection Scheme: Analysis and Discussion
4.4. Action Phase
- Creation Action: Nodes do not create messages for nodes that they have in the black-hole node list.
- Disconnect Action: When a node is within range of another node that is in the black-hole node list, no connection is established, and no messages are exchanged.
- Delete Action: All messages from nodes in the black-hole list are deleted from buffers.
5. Robustness Results and Analysis
5.1. Varying the Message Generation Rate
5.2. Varying the Node Density
5.3. Comparing BiRep with the State-of-the-Art
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|FBIDM ||past meetings, past delivery probability||suspicious multiple times||exclude black-holes||requires ferry nodes|
|MUTON ||past meetings, past delivery probability, transitivity||suspicious multiple times||exclude black-holes||requires ferry nodes|
|MDS ||encounter records||forwards less than a threshold||exclude black-holes||no exchange of trust information|
|MDS extension ||encounter records, cluster analysis||forwards less than a threshold||exclude black-holes||no exchange of trust information|
|Packet Exchange Recordings ||delivery records||forwards less than a threshold multiple times||none described||no exchange of trust information|
|RCAR ||messages carry forwarders, ACK messages||aging decreases reputation||prefer nodes with a higher reputation||no exchange of trust information, requires ACK|
|CWS ||messages delivered, relayed, dropped||exchange of reputation, thresholds||few resources used for nodes with low reputation||does not assess classification performance|
|BiRep||messages carry forwarders||exchange of reputation, node has no forwarding record||warmup, disconnect from black-holes, delete messages from black-holes|
|Simulation Time||24 h|
|Map||Helsinki downtown (4500 m × 3500 m)|
|Movement Model||Shortest Path Map-Based Movement Model|
|Nodes’ speed||Pedestrians 1.8–5.4 km/h; Cars 10–50 km/h; Trams 25–36 km/h|
|Number of nodes||206 (Pedestrians: 100; Cars: 100; Trams: 6)|
|Nodes’ buffer size||5 MB|
|Nodes’ wait time||0–120 s|
|Message size||500 kb–1 MB|
|Message generation interval||25–35 s|
|Message TTL (Time to Live)||5 h|
|Interfaces’ data rate||250 kBps = 2 Mbps|
|Interfaces’ transmission range||10 m|
|Scenario Name||Base||Less Messages||More Messages||Bigger Transmission Rate|
|Message generation interval||25–35 s||35–70 s||9–18 s||25–35 s|
|Interfaces’ data rate||2 Mbps||2 Mbps||2 Mbps||4 Mbps|
|Reputation Schemes||False Positive Ratio||Detection Ratio|
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Nabais, C.; Pereira, P.R.; Magaia, N. BiRep: A Reputation Scheme to Mitigate the Effects of Black-Hole Nodes in Delay-Tolerant Internet of Vehicles. Sensors 2021, 21, 835. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030835
Nabais C, Pereira PR, Magaia N. BiRep: A Reputation Scheme to Mitigate the Effects of Black-Hole Nodes in Delay-Tolerant Internet of Vehicles. Sensors. 2021; 21(3):835. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030835Chicago/Turabian Style
Nabais, Catarina, Paulo Rogério Pereira, and Naercio Magaia. 2021. "BiRep: A Reputation Scheme to Mitigate the Effects of Black-Hole Nodes in Delay-Tolerant Internet of Vehicles" Sensors 21, no. 3: 835. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030835