Next Article in Journal
A CBCT Evaluation of Midpalatal Bone Density in Various Skeletal Patterns
Previous Article in Journal
Super-Resolution Generative Adversarial Network Based on the Dual Dimension Attention Mechanism for Biometric Image Super-Resolution
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Robust Facial Expression Recognition Algorithm Based on Multi-Rate Feature Fusion Scheme

This is an early access version, the complete PDF, HTML, and XML versions will be available soon.

Article

Non-Contact Measurement of Empathy Based on Micro-Movement Synchronization

1
Department of Emotion Engineering, University of Sangmyung, Seoul 03016, Korea
2
School of Design, Savannah College of Art and Design, Savannah, GA 31401, USA
3
Department of Human Centered Artificial Intelligence, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mario Munoz-Organero
Sensors 2021, 21(23), 7818; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21237818 (registering DOI)
Received: 14 October 2021 / Revised: 18 November 2021 / Accepted: 20 November 2021 / Published: 24 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotion Intelligence Based on Smart Sensing)
Tracking consumer empathy is one of the biggest challenges for advertisers. Although numerous studies have shown that consumers’ empathy affects purchasing, there are few quantitative and unobtrusive methods for assessing whether the viewer is sharing congruent emotions with the advertisement. This study suggested a non-contact method for measuring empathy by evaluating the synchronization of micro-movements between consumers and people within the media. Thirty participants viewed 24 advertisements classified as either empathy or non-empathy advertisements. For each viewing, we recorded the facial data and subjective empathy scores. We recorded the facial micro-movements, which reflect the ballistocardiography (BCG) motion, through the carotid artery remotely using a camera without any sensory attachment to the participant. Synchronization in cardiovascular measures (e.g., heart rate) is known to indicate higher levels of empathy. We found that through cross-entropy analysis, the more similar the micro-movements between the participant and the person in the advertisement, the higher the participant’s empathy scores for the advertisement. The study suggests that non-contact BCG methods can be utilized in cases where sensor attachment is ineffective (e.g., measuring empathy between the viewer and the media content) and can be a complementary method to subjective empathy scales.
Keywords: video content empathy; micro-movement synchronization; non-contact empathy measurement; empathic advertisement video content empathy; micro-movement synchronization; non-contact empathy measurement; empathic advertisement
MDPI and ACS Style

Cho, A.; Park, S.; Lee, H.; Whang, M. Non-Contact Measurement of Empathy Based on Micro-Movement Synchronization. Sensors 2021, 21, 7818. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21237818

AMA Style

Cho A, Park S, Lee H, Whang M. Non-Contact Measurement of Empathy Based on Micro-Movement Synchronization. Sensors. 2021; 21(23):7818. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21237818

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cho, Ayoung, Sung Park, Hyunwoo Lee, and Mincheol Whang. 2021. "Non-Contact Measurement of Empathy Based on Micro-Movement Synchronization" Sensors 21, no. 23: 7818. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21237818

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop